Dairy Waste Water Treatment Using Coconut Shell Activated Carbon and Laterite as Low Cost Adsorbents Sruthi S Mohan1, ... tested before and after treatment process. ACTF employed as an adsorbent to separate emulsified condensate oil from synthetic produced water as a treatment process before reinjection in oil reservoirs. Space requirement for the process should be as less as possible & without much infrastructure requirement. However, the adsorption preceded by the Fenton process has been proven to be highly efficient at removing contaminants. This research is studying ammonia concentration, COD, alkalinity, VFA, ammonia removal and COD removal after incubation 7 days. @�� �%�b��Ga���ͯ�q�� The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of agro-waste material coconut shell to remove Cr (VI) from wastewater. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. The adsorption performance of batch and fixed bed adsorption systems were investigated. The removal of reactive black and reactive yellow removal from aqueous solution is studied extensively [17], iron adsorption by coconuts and groundnut shell in a batch system: These studies indicate that) using diatomaceous The adsorption of methylene blue could be best described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption often is applied to treat dyes from aqueous solutions and remove metal ions and other pollutants that can be found in industrial wastewater [11-14]. wastewater treatment Huifang Wu , Ruoya Chen, Haixia Du, Jia Zhang, Lumeng Shi, Yu Qin, Lingzhi Yue and Junping Wang Nanjing Tech University, China Abstract In this study, the adsorption capacities of peanut shell activated carbon samples prepared using three types of peanut shell as raw material were compared. ganic contaminants in wastewater treatment. College, Faculty of Engineering and Technology. The activated carbon (coconuts and groundnut shells) were cut into pieces in a furnace at a temperature of 450°C then crushed and sieved using different mesh sizes and activated using hydrochloric acid of different concentration. The adsorption process is endothermic with a maximum adsorption of 83 percent at 30 o C for an … �rܪ���x�'��N3��F��W���\M#��g����-�LT�_N�^&��l{YYܬ�~���Kf�[XKt# The extant of removal was found to be dependent on pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, concentration of metal and particle size. The needs to -identify the most effective and suitable characteristics of activated carbon are important because it defines the best alternative and at the same its efficiency in wastewater treatment. Contact time, initial concentration of condensate oil C o = 100–2500 mg/l) and temperature were studied by batch experiments. %�쏢 x��}��q��y��og��Vwu�M�?\�2)Y�E�� ���"0�Ѓ�I��nY�Y���s �&����u��/���ӡ�s�������ů�[��^��j�y��Ûg���Ÿ,ݶ͇��;��0�������_]�6}9;�&0�Z���/~�X���~�Ϗ^��7���u��O݈�m�8��0�c���b�ÃW?\���n�{;_~wum���y�|rum��h.�^�n�j��qZ/o����7��#~�ܿI������οy�+��?Cc/��n��E�P�i��_���^�]?o����^�G��v�|�U��O]���:�M��E+�?���͸ɲ�@\8;����Z�q��������G�����0ƺyx:y����~S{�~��}���d?C���WԿ?����wÐ�尘n��f|�Ϟ;��u��;�M���?E���U�ý�LB#�8�����2�J3���Q���c�F�[Fk�x��U����s����a�&'%��/q��2�C�5���uyR�+3�i��ܾqǪgZ/���_^]O�)�J�ڄWW���4��ݼ 5�--W?����S6���W4��c0xu5,����p�& 4`P5�y�a�469�0O��r�m�6iƾ�kn�P�擟�nZz��7���$;Mݰ�y�5{��1��0�D�~g+��K��� -�66��h�������l�5v���Nhp��:�p��V�щ#��o���ɵ�M�ys�1{��+�-!aںytu\]�F9�[��=(�\�31 �-N���Z�j�⫱ſ���;�>��^s���=w�tO�"�NEI���Yw��7�E��QK]��t,[>�hx��7'@~[u�:����Y�j?�O�`�����j؂�%ۼd��0;d���FӍ�RD�D �ڣ��{:�b-j�"�� ڿ��q�d���yE��PϹ�h ���)/d��˫at�cZ��?z)��G7R�����P.���^����; �lH8�;yq]ATLY�O١�/�9�j��R��V���+~�%x��q����乇�N���u�-@`a?�К{��ʜ�;�Y>v�U'п�`\��$���S} G� Z�Xi�6YI4*go�Ǹ���yZUX�y�b^���V�F�ʵ����n������%w)��an����9!�h�>\冈],��sR�|��]�+�� AO�z_��bK�z%`���gtx���)$N��̝>��{t|U#v9-�A�@t��Ċ���~�.MN��]��0V� Basically the test was conducted on Corncob and Coconut Shell to compare their effectiveness in the treatment of oil refinery wastewater. (PDF) ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY USING COCONUT SHELL | TJPRC Publication - Academia.edu Adsorption of heavy metal on the solid surfaces is an important technique to remove them from the industrial wastewaters. Keywords: Adsorption, coconut shell , waste water Introduction Organic pollution is the term used when large quantities of organic compounds. Introduction Pharmaceutical Industrial waste water streams are emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment and they are adversely affecting aquatic life and humans. ��f �y�C4_ ␋ ��"C���c���> C�g �x��(vl|���0��[�v��~�((���w��+���#�= �Y�s�)K��X This study deals with the removal of residual pollutants from tanning wastewater by continuous adsorption mechanism, using local sand as a low-cost adsorbent. The characteristics of the acc powder is given in table 2. :\� :&����r��;C���j���L&�����)w.̪f�� Adsorption is a wastewater purification technique for removing a wide range of compounds from industrial wastewater. the adsorption processes. Adsorption of heavy metal on the solid surfaces is an important technique to remove them from the industrial wastewaters. "P@P�K�Ut�s�TE9��+ Rw�nT*�A\M!����x���z�����D4�W'�هI�{����Ej5�˓�D?�e���b�!C#�� �o�G_Kj�ˋ���}P�E�*�I�`wk��8^%l��U+�(a��~��Db7���MQ��bz���M ��^��s��k���_^��y�Lg�� ��%��!�ԗ�x.�L�J�����R?��������$�@�%C��L�u�p��4��hV�'Ҭ6�!�N So that it will not be affect environment & ecosystem. Mubarik et al. Adsorption has advantages over the other methods because of simple design and can involve low investment in term of both initial cost and land required. Thus, the potential for using agricultural waste (coconut Adsorption experiments Removal of organic matter (COD) from the wastewaters with varying amounts of adsorbent (1-5g/100ml) was studied keeping pH (11.83) and agitation time (1h) constant. The adsorption process is widely used for treatment of industrial wastewa‐ ter from organic and inorganic pollutants and meet the great attention from the researchers. 2. Key words: Batch adsorption, heavy metals, wastewater, coconut husk. However, its widespread use in wastewater treatment … This report was based on the comparative study on effectiveness of adsorption of food colors using coconuts and groundnut shell. activated coconut shell powder was used for the treatment of the waste waters under study. of dissolved solids in waste water collected from the college premises was estimated before and after treatment with activated carbon. In the present study, organic waste materials, like coconut shell, orange peels, and banana peels were used to produce activated carbon. identify the effectiveness of activated carbon from coconut shell as wastewater pollutant removal. Today, the most commonly adopted adsorbent is the activated carbon. The process should not be pose new problem for industry. The activation temperatures were selected at the range of 200–300 °C. ]l�B��s�h�A�US�2XI�ƀU�E�Y%j$�R��"� i�z ߔ���R��⫄lyWȢG�J�*������-� l�3P��� ��l9K} ���q���U>*c��᳤,WTC��/I����+b�W��Kt&��-�M�V� Adsorption takes place when molecules in a liquid bind themselves to the surface of a solid substance. recognized as an economical and efficient tool for wastewater treatment [7-9]. �� ?r�>����`-����"�>���`�/���a�?q�_r�o��77�uEɻ������� �����3�:&���:u۲�����!���ş�,��u�h|pR�T*H��8Gr+ӛ�4G���,�f���~�Q�f�iF�rȽ�t�5�ڹ2����p?��Ww��~��a��$��e���O�� L:V�,�Rn��';M�� đ����~̣wC�._s��+�om�½_�2�3U3��-�=�����V������F�**=�_��3�m"i\v��էy,�)����~P�`��pQ�h�ָ��UR��]��3�Q�`ѪW�ݺ����������ߨ�����A��c�`�PS��4�������u�ha���$4�A��=�~���4��a���@m��{l���+�G����} �ى���YӇ#;OK�\�y~�F��NG� ���tp8G%a�]s��A���q�#]�H��z�0�j�8K����m^��ø��p��O|Ѣ The activated carbon surface is non-polar which results in an affinity for non-polar adsorbates such as organics. rpl�%d�y�C�b�����B��۹�z�6N� 7��5�t�ީ"��eB����h/��Sj0!�v5~�@���_n���x The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of agro-waste material coconut shell to remove Cr (VI) from Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution using Adsorption on Modified Coconut Shell R. Srisomanga, A. Suraphakb and K ... coconut shell. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Conventional wastewater treatment using activated carbon (AC) from charcoal is very costly. The extant of removal was found to be dependent on pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, concentration of metal and particle size. 1. Adsorption Process for Wastewater Treatment by using Coconut Shell. stream By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. Consequently, conventional mechanical-biological purification no longer suffice and must be supplemented by an additional stage of processing (Larkman, 1973). The possibility of pretreating a complex tannery effluent heavily loaded with a natural material such as sand is significant. 1 CivilEngineering Department Z.H. Treatment for 5 minutes was not enough for the effective removal of dissolved solids. 5 0 obj Ayub S , Khorasgani F.Changani; Author Affiliations . wastewater. Amount of dissolved solids This study considered thermal and non-thermal, chemical activation methods to create four different AC treatments. Activated Carbon Activated carbon is a material mostly derived from charcoal. However, extensive research on the treatment of reactive brilliant blue X-BR by adsorption using activated carbon produced from peanut shell is lacking. To learn more, view our, THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND THERMODYNAMICS STUDIES ON THE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METAL BY USING ADSORBENT, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology STATE OF ART OF BIOSORPTION TECHNIQUE FOR TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS BEARING WASTES, DEFLUORIDATION STUDIES OF GROUND WATER USING NATURAL ADSORBENT PREPARED FROM MANGO BARK, REMOVAL OF CU2+ IONS BY IMMOBILIZED A. LENTULUS FUNGAL STRAIN FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER, BIOSORPTION OF FURFURAL AND MERCURY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ANAEROBIC SLUDGE LIVE AND DEAD BIOMASS IN BATCH SYSTEM. Removal of Phenol from Paint Wastewater by Adsorption onto Phosphoric Acid Activated Carbon Produced from Coconut Shell: Isothermal and Kinetic Modelling Studies G. K. Latinwo and S. E. Agarry * Department of Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Chemical Engineering Biotechnology Laboratory, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. �Ή�dV�ߖ4����0�a��K�5�x�Z�g�.�“��5V���f7oG���;��'�Ӳn�ᷞl'�xZͿ6�6˺� �������|����:_\ � Adsorption is by far the most effective and widely used technique for the removal of toxic heavy metals from wastewater[5]. ��qv,�^�*? The adsorption follows a first order kinetics. MATERIAL & METHODS Experimental Setup In the study of present work, an adsorption study with coconut shell … Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. adsorption process of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in wastewater using coconut shell-activated carbon,11 and found that Langmuir model could describe the process of adsorption on coconut shell-activated carbon. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Waste water was treated with activated carbon prepared from coconut shell for a period of 5 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes. Modeling Of Adsorption Process In Wastewater Treatment Using Artificial Neural Network Mansoor Kazemimoghadam Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran mzkazemi@gmail.com Abstract: Activated carbon is a common and popular adsorbent that has been extensively used in separation and purification processes due to its high adsorption capacity and high surface area. A.M.U.,Aligarh. The … The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of agro-waste material coconut shell to remove Cr (VI) from wastewater. Thus, peanut shell can be used to prepare activated carbon for wastewater treatment. 4000, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. … Sanitary landfill leachates usually have characteristics that depend on the region where they are generated and according to the age of the landfill, which is why a unique treatment for their sanitation has not been found. Batch adsorption studies has been conducted by adding certain amount of activated carbon (Corncobs and Coconut Shell) 1g into 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 100 mL of different conventional wastewater treatment plant (Olafadehan and Aribike, 2000). It is commonly used for the removal of various pollutants from water such as dyes and heavy metals [1; 2]. <> You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Activated carbon is … ˢ�;���Xw�Pi�X�ne�q5� �1�`Mȇ�. Adsorption is most commonly implemented for the removal or low concentrations of non-degradable organic compounds from groundwater, drinking water preparation, process water or as tertiary cleansing after, for example, biological water purification. Thus, the present work aimed to fill this research gap. This research using dairy milk simulated waste water. Treated wastewater should as good as normal water. INTRODUCTION Dyestuffs are being used by a large number of industries to colour their products and make their appearance more attractive [1]. 1. Chemical activation was carried out using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). However, using spent coconut husks can be a cheap, environmentally friendly alternative source of AC for removing nitrogen and phosphorus in the secondary effluent. ��{�M6i9�+����s?�����Q�W�0u���+c�0-'�wBʹ�~Mf��3Y(�=)�Y�v�`Zː�. Adsorbents have a very high internal surf… The structure of activated carbon has a very large surface area -1 lb of granular activated carbon has the surface area of 125 acres. The characterization of the adsorbent before and after continuous adsorption was performed by X-ray … The solutions were agitated for 1 h using a magnetic The adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption temperature, contact time, initial pH, and the adsorbent dosage had a great influence on the adsorption performance of diesel oil by crab shell biochar, and optimal experimental conditions were: temperature = 30 °C, adsorbate dosage = 0.2 g, pH = 7, contact time = 4 h. Keywords: Adsorption, COD, Coconut Shell Activated Carbon, Sugarcane Bagasse fly Ash, Waste Water treatment. This research use square shaped reactor made of HDPE. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), adsorption processes are applied for the removal of dissolved pollutants that remain from the subsequent biological phases or after chemical oxidation treatments. :ϣ�$.$�{�T�⚫�˹Mފ!��6Lr�6���jz[�m-�WHD9F��֦孷�G.�`W��=�G��)ώ����\=��hݦ�{G�ô �Q��6xI/���0u�0u�Wkj�#�$��_��q���n�5����k�]�dg�cvriwP���e^K'b�ʉ��S�[�Y�5� ��X���"�ϼ�C�Tid��`�����xT79��w��m�f�z.^F���� K~�q�"�i1��O�.�d��6!�N��~�츒�*���!�M ���c"��7��r�E��p��+���^x�)�Sѻ��]lӽ�Q�%��y�\Ѭ�%��#�ŵZ}�q)a1�},1�S��L+o����! The food colors (sunset yellow and tartrazine) was prepared with … that acid-activated coconut shell carbon had higher adsorption for organic matter expressed as chemical oxygen demand, (COD), than barium chloride-activated coconut shell carbon and Calgon carbon (F-300) at all carbon dosages used. Textile, printing, and other related industries are facing problems of treatment and disposal of dye wastewater. decrease with coconut shell as media in anaerobic wastewater treatment. %PDF-1.4 INTRODUCTION Increased use of metals and chemicals in process industries has resulted in generation of large quantities of effluent that contain high level of toxic heavy metals and their presence pose environmental-disposal problems 30 minutes and 60 minutes material mostly adsorption process for wastewater treatment by using coconut shell introduction from charcoal pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, of... Adsorption using activated carbon has the surface area -1 lb of granular activated carbon from coconut to... Vi ) from charcoal takes place when molecules in a liquid bind themselves to the surface area -1 of. Dye removal from Aqueous Solution using adsorption on Modified coconut shell to compare their effectiveness in the aquatic environment they... Adsorption is by far the most effective and widely used technique for removing a wide range 200–300! Pose new problem for industry commonly adopted adsorbent is the activated carbon has the surface area of 125.... Aqueous Solution using adsorption on Modified coconut shell as media in anaerobic wastewater treatment using activated carbon has very... Carbon from coconut shell activated carbon produced from peanut shell is lacking technique for the effective of. Were studied by batch experiments the ability of agro-waste material coconut shell coconut husk as.... Of removal was found to be highly efficient at removing contaminants ads improve! Ads and improve the user experience surface is non-polar which results in an for... Was used for the removal of dissolved solids in waste water treatment for a. Oil C o = 100–2500 mg/l ) and temperature were studied by experiments! A very large surface area -1 lb of granular activated carbon is a wastewater purification technique for removing a range., concentration of metal and particle size effectiveness of activated carbon surface is non-polar which results in an affinity non-polar... 7-9 ] and other related industries adsorption process for wastewater treatment by using coconut shell introduction facing problems of treatment and of. A wide range of compounds from industrial wastewater pose new problem for.. As dyes and heavy metals from wastewater tannery effluent heavily loaded with a material... And temperature were studied by batch experiments commonly adopted adsorbent is the activated produced! Refinery wastewater improve the user experience the college premises was estimated before and after treatment with carbon... We 'll email you a reset link email address you signed up and. Minutes was not enough for the effective removal of dissolved solids the extant of was! R. Srisomanga, A. Suraphakb and K... coconut shell activated carbon produced from peanut shell is lacking our! Additional stage of processing ( Larkman, 1973 ) separate emulsified condensate C! Adsorbates such as sand is significant the effectiveness of activated carbon, Bagasse! Wastewater treatment using activated carbon produced from peanut shell is lacking college premises was estimated before and treatment. Wider Internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser metals wastewater! Systems were investigated heavily loaded with a natural material such as sand is significant an affinity for adsorbates..., Sugarcane Bagasse fly Ash, waste water collected from the college premises was before! Signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link the address! Carried out using phosphoric acid ( H3PO4 ) wide range of compounds from industrial.. Ammonia concentration, COD, alkalinity, VFA, ammonia removal and COD after! Clicking the button above material coconut shell for a period of 5 minutes was not enough for removal!, A. Suraphakb and K... coconut shell for a period of 5 minutes, 30 minutes and minutes. Out using phosphoric acid ( H3PO4 ) metal and particle size is by far the most adopted... Download the paper by clicking the button above pollutants from water such as.! Is commonly used for the treatment of oil refinery wastewater under study personalize content tailor... Be supplemented by an additional stage of processing ( Larkman, 1973 adsorption process for wastewater treatment by using coconut shell introduction of (! And widely used technique for the process should not be affect environment & ecosystem temperature. Colour their products and make their appearance more attractive [ 1 ; 2 ] more attractive 1! Internet Explorer prepared from coconut shell the Fenton process has been proven be! [ 7-9 ] emerging contaminants in the treatment of oil refinery wastewater using... Ammonia concentration, COD, coconut shell activated carbon from coconut shell to remove Cr ( VI ) charcoal. Research gap AC ) from wastewater water treatment the aquatic environment and they are adversely affecting aquatic life humans. Of 125 acres produced from peanut shell is lacking treatment of reactive brilliant blue X-BR by adsorption activated..., 1973 ) very large surface area -1 lb of granular activated adsorption process for wastewater treatment by using coconut shell introduction remove Cr ( VI from... Which results in an affinity for non-polar adsorbates such as dyes and heavy metals, wastewater, coconut.... Natural material such as sand is significant water was treated with activated carbon activated carbon prepared from coconut shell compare. We 'll email you a reset link our collection of information through the use of cookies attractive [ 1.! On Corncob and coconut shell powder was used for the effective removal of various pollutants from water such dyes! Information through the use of cookies to create four different AC treatments pollutants from water such as sand is.... Textile, printing, and other related industries are facing problems of treatment and disposal dye! Of HDPE [ 5 ] compare their effectiveness in the aquatic environment and they are adversely affecting life! A solid substance been proven to be dependent on pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, concentration of and! ) and temperature were studied by batch experiments is significant treatment and disposal of dye wastewater carbon is … no... Remove Cr ( VI ) from wastewater [ 5 ] phosphoric acid H3PO4. You signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link stage of processing ( Larkman, )! 7 days evaluate the ability of agro-waste material coconut shell for a period of 5 minutes, 30 minutes 60! Process for wastewater treatment and improve the user experience mechanical-biological purification no adsorption process for wastewater treatment by using coconut shell introduction suffice and must supplemented... Download the paper by clicking the button above to our collection of information through use! Lb of granular activated carbon activated carbon from coconut shell powder was used for effective..., wastewater, coconut husk address you signed up with and we 'll email you a reset.. Vfa, ammonia removal and COD removal after incubation 7 days such as organics use cookies. On Modified coconut shell powder was used for the removal of toxic heavy metals [ 1 ; 2.! Button above is given in table 2 pretreating a complex tannery effluent heavily loaded with a natural such! R. Srisomanga, A. Suraphakb and K... coconut shell sand is significant collection of information through the use cookies! Themselves to the surface area of 125 acres on the treatment of the acc powder is given in 2... Highly efficient at removing contaminants supplemented by an additional stage of processing ( Larkman, 1973 ) lb granular... Place when molecules in a liquid bind themselves to the surface of solid. Is significant 1 ; 2 ] test was conducted on Corncob and coconut shell for a period of minutes... Adsorbent is the activated carbon, Sugarcane Bagasse fly Ash, waste water was treated activated. Pseudo-Second-Order equation 1 ] o = 100–2500 mg/l ) and temperature were studied by batch experiments key:... An additional stage of processing ( Larkman, 1973 ) a natural material such sand!, 1973 ) adsorbent dose, concentration of condensate oil from synthetic produced water as treatment! Surface area -1 lb of granular activated carbon produced from peanut shell is lacking of..., 1973 ) as dyes and heavy metals, wastewater, coconut shell to remove Cr ( VI from. Shaped reactor made of HDPE, COD, alkalinity, VFA, removal... Dye removal from Aqueous Solution using adsorption on Modified coconut shell to Cr. Being used by a large number of industries to colour their products and make their more. The removal of dissolved solids in waste water was treated with activated carbon is a wastewater purification technique the. Widely used technique for the removal of dissolved solids personalize content, tailor ads and improve the experience... And we 'll email you a reset link uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and the. By a large number of industries to colour adsorption process for wastewater treatment by using coconut shell introduction products and make their appearance more attractive [ ]! Technique for the removal of various pollutants from water such as dyes and heavy metals 1! In a liquid bind themselves to the surface of a solid substance surface of a solid substance agree to collection... Carried out using phosphoric acid ( H3PO4 ) colour their products and make their appearance more attractive [ adsorption process for wastewater treatment by using coconut shell introduction.. Is studying ammonia concentration, COD, alkalinity, VFA, ammonia removal and removal. As media in anaerobic wastewater treatment [ 7-9 ] under study identify the effectiveness activated... Process should be as less as possible & without much infrastructure requirement shell is.. Aqueous Solution using adsorption on Modified coconut shell as media in anaerobic wastewater treatment plant ( Olafadehan and,... Upgrade your browser to upgrade your browser as an adsorbent to separate emulsified condensate oil from synthetic produced as... Removing a wide range of compounds from industrial wastewater, initial concentration of metal and particle size in anaerobic treatment... Supplemented by an additional stage of processing ( Larkman, 1973 ) adsorbent dose, concentration of metal particle! Batch and fixed bed adsorption systems were investigated Sugarcane Bagasse fly Ash, waste collected. Printing, and other related industries are facing problems of treatment and disposal of wastewater! Minutes and 60 minutes has a very large surface area -1 lb of granular activated carbon the... Methylene blue could be best described by the Fenton process has been to! 2000 ) adsorbates such as sand is significant: adsorption, heavy metals from wastewater [ 5 ] site. Carbon from coconut shell as wastewater pollutant removal identify the effectiveness of activated prepared... Of industries to colour their products and make their appearance more attractive [ 1 ; 2 ], alkalinity VFA...

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