80:349-357. 72:199-203. 1994). The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. Dogwood is a small broadleaf shrub, typically found growing along woodland edges and in hedgerows of southern England. Plant Disease. Phytophthora alni. Plant Disease 80(4):349-358. 1994, SAMAB 1996). This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. Forest Service Protection Report 26, p. 19. References Cited Two years later, Pirone (1980) noticed a widespread and rapid deterioration of flowering dogwoods in New York and Connecticut (Fig. 1980. By 1995, the disease had been confirmed in northern Georgia (1987), western North Carolina (1988), and as far south as northern Alabama. Dogwood - A Plant for all Seasons No matter where you live in Canada, chances are there is a dogwood for you. Hibben, C.R., and M.L. Michigan State University. USDA. These were also the species on which the responsible agent for the disease was discovered in 2003 in a nursery in Lombardy, Italy, and in a private garden in Germany. Britton, M.T. Plant Disease. Invasive Listing Sources: Website developed by The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health and the National Park Service in cooperation with the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England , Invasive Plant Control, Inc. , USDA Forest Service , p. 42. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia. Figure 1. Provides state, county, point and GIS data. As of 1999, anthracnose had killed 49.7 percent of the native dogwood trees in 24 western counties of North Carolina (USFS 2001). 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. During that period, the number of plots with severe epidemics (more than 25 percent of foliage blighted) increased by 638 percent. It was first observed in 1976 affecting a population of Cornus nuttallii in Washington state (Byther and Davidson 1979). It grows to about 20 feet high with an 18-foot spread. Finding the disease distinct from other Discula spp. Stem dieback from dogwood anthracnose (, Terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive species, Aquatic (Water-Dwelling) Invasive Species, Public Outreach and Education Materials (Invasive species), Climate Change Impacts on Forest Diseases. The dogwoods are distinguished from other flowering shrubs by the clusters of small, 4-petaled white flowers and opposite (except for 1 species) leaves that are toothless and have prominent, arching, lateral veins. The Plants Database includes the following 29 species of Cornus .Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Redlin, S.C. 1991. Symptoms include: (1) necrotic lesions surrounded by a reddish or brown-purple zone (some with chlorotic halo) (Fig. The bark is grey and smooth with shallow ridges which develop with age, and its twigs are smooth, straight and slim. The species reproduces vegetatively by rooting along nodes and the lower stems ( EPPO, 2009b ). 77: 34-37. Redlin, S.C. 1991. Dogwood anthracnose. University of Georgia. Drought and winter injury appear to increase susceptibility (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). This varied group of plants give great garden value. Dogwood anthracnose: A new disease threatens two native Cornus species. In 1983, the fungus associated with the anthracnose on C. nuttallii was identified as a species of Discula, and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and Japanese dogwood (Cornus kousa) were noted as minor hosts (Salogga and Ammirati 1983), but C. Florida is now known as a major host that is impacted by this disease. Discula destructiva Redlin (1991) (Redlin 1991), First detected in the late 1970s (Daughtrey et al. Dogwood; Hebes; Lavender (good for butterflies) Mahonia; Currants (Rubus) Thyme; Viburnums; Are there any other shrubs I should avoid? In the Southern Appalachians, mortality is most likely at elevations above 3,000 feet. 1995). USDA Forest Service—Southern Region Forest Pest Management, Asheville, North Carolina. Chellemi, D.O., K.O. It is listed as a black listed invasive species in Switzerland (EPPO, 2009b). Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants : Threatened & Endangered: Wetland Indicator Status : 50,000+ Plant Images ... Cornus L. – dogwood Species: Cornus drummondii C.A. and C.R. 1996). Daughtrey, M.L., C.R. Britton, and W.T. U.S. Forest Service Protection Report R8-PR 23. Cornell University. 1992. Top of page The North American species Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) and C. nuttallii (Pacific dogwood) are particularly susceptible. Britton, M.T. Bugwood Wiki was created to be a resource for those needing information on Integrated Pest Management, Invasive Species and … Canadian Forest Service. USDA Forest Service. 1993. Beyond this aesthetic loss, the absence of native dogwoods and their fruits is probably detrimental to wildlife. Mature trees can grow to 10m. The flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is the species most people think of when the word dogwood is mentioned.Although it is considered one of the favorite trees in the south, there are two other species, kousa dogwood (Cornus kousa) and Cornelian cherry dogwood (Cornus mas), which will grow in all areas of South Carolina except along the coast from Charleston to Savannah, Ga. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Dogwood Anthracnose. The decline of dogwood populations resulting from dogwood anthracnose has several serious impacts in the Southern Appalachians. Maps can be downloaded and shared. Spring flowering of forest dogwoods enhances the aesthetic quality of forest landscapes and is important for tourism. This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. Patterns of evolution in Discula fungi and the origin of dogwood anthracnose in North America, studied using arbitrarily amplified and ribosomal DNA. Dogwood fruits, rich in fat and protein, are a preferred food for turkeys, bobwhite quail, squirrels, rabbits, and deer, as well as numerous non-game species of birds. Caetano-Anolles, G., R.N. Understory forest dogwoods are more prone to infection than trees growing in full sunlight. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. and M.T. associated with anthracnose of dogwood in the Pacific Northwest. 1983. Erythrina Gall Wasp. Engaging and empowering the public to help find, map, and prevent invasive species in America's wilderness areas, wild rivers, and other natural areas. Amylostereum complex. 1988. Produced by: USDA, FS, Forest Health Protection, and its partners. 1994. Leaves are dark green with bright yellow flowers. Britton, K.O. Dogwood leaves also have a high calcium content and decompose rapidly. Center for Integrated Plant Systems. Other names for this tree include Gray dogwood and panicled dogwood. 1994). Dogwood trees are dependent on surface moisture because root networks don't penetrate to water reserves that may lie deeper beneath the slightly acidic well-draining soil they prefer. University of Arkansas. In: J. L. Knighten and R. L. Anderson (eds.). Horticulture Diagnostic Laboratory. Anthracnose was monitored on permanent plots in the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP) from 1988-1991 (Windham et al. Cooperative Extension. Both Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge's wetlands and uplands have been impacted by invasive plant species. 1996). (ed.). 1992. Swank. Landscape, Nursery, and Urban Forestry Program. Windham. Northern Swamp Dogwood. 2001. Below 3,000 feet, damage is most severe on moist, cool sites such as northeast-facing slopes (Chellemi et al. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service. Select the non-indigenous forest pest to view maps depicting state and county distribution. Nov., Cause of Dogwood Anthracnose. Influence of site factors on dogwood anthracnose in the Nantahala Mountain range of western North Carolina. 1992). Results of the 1991 dogwood anthracnose impact assessment and pilot test in the southeastern United States. University of Massachusetts Extension. Plant Disease. Apply the mulch of your choice such as bark chips 3 to 4 inches deep over roots to hold in moisture. Plant Disease. Secondary cycles of leaf infection during rainy periods increase the impact of anthracnose on dogwoods (Britton 1993, Hibben and Daughtrey 1988). It grows up to a height of 4 to 15 feet, and its subgenera are Swida. In early autumn, it … Anthracnose causes serious damage to two species of dogwood in natural habitats: eastern flowering dogwood (C. florida) and Pacific dogwood (C. nuttallii). Of the 17 species of dogwood native to North America, the four most common garden types are native flowering dogwoods, Pacific dogwood, Cornelian cherry dogwood and kousa dogwoods. Dogwood anthracnose: understanding a disease new to North America. 1993. In: Stipes, R.J. An organization’s internal relationships and balance affect how the organization relates to its clients and the external environment. 1995. Want create site? National strategy for special forest products. Red-osier dogwood is by far our most common native dogwood. Davidson, Jr. 1979. Distribution of dogwood anthracnose in the Great Smoky Mountain National Park and effects of proximity to water to plots and plot aspects on disease severity. Dogwood anthracnose in northeastern United States. Adapted for eXtension.org by Thomas DeGomez, University of Arizona. 1290. Britton et al. Daughtrey, M.L., and C.R. Also known as Chinese dogwood, Korean dogwood, or Japanese dogwood, the Kousa dogwood is a small deciduous tree or multi-stemmed shrub. Agrilus planipennis. Hibben. This plant has no children Legal Status. Defoliation of affected dogwoods is common in the Southern Appalachians (Britton 1993, Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). 1). In the GSMNP, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the dogwoods have died in heavily shaded cove and alluvial forests. Figures 5-6. Hibben. Leaf buds are black and look like bristles, forming on short stalks. Invasive species is the bane of parks across the city, said Chris Frelke, the city’s director of Parks, Recreation and Community Facilities. Natural Resources Canada. The DNR is working with citizens and partners to slow the spread of invasive species. For this reason, ornamentals grown in open, sunny sites are often disfigured without being killed. The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Extension Service. 1996). Disease severity within infected areas also has increased rapidly. In native habitats such as sedge meadows and fens in North America, C. sericea colonizes far from clones of shrub by seed, but also advances via spreading (B Middleton, National Wetlands Research Center, Louisiana, USA, … Invasive plants, animals and pests are taking a toll on Wisconsin's lakes, rivers and landscapes. At Dogwood we believe that everything is connected. Pirone, P.P. Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry. In 1983, the fungus associated with the anthracnose on C. nuttallii was identified as a species of Discula, and flowering dogwood ( Cornus florida) and Japanese dogwood ( Cornus kousa) were noted as minor hosts (Salogga and Ammirati 1983), but C. Florida is now known as a major host that is impacted by this disease. is dogwood invasive. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1983. Dogwood anthracnose: understanding a disease new to North America. Control and eradication, a primary management goal, is an ongoing challenge. dikti / Getty Images Latin Name: Various species of Lantana can be invasive. University of New Hampshire. Fungal disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and Pacific dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) trees (Daughtrey et al. Their loss could hasten soil acidification, reduce nutrient availability, and influence numerous ecological relationships (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). Large C. florida often die two to three years after the first symptoms are found in the leaves (Anderson et al. Salogga, D.S., and J.F. Daughtrey. Invasive Species. Discula destructiva sp. Table 2 identifies those invasive species commonly used in gardens or landscaping, the corresponding alternative plant category, as well as some additional alternatives. Cornus kousa, C. alternifolia and C. amomum are reported as relatively resistant (Sherald et al., 1994). Cooperative Extension Service. Some, like sericea lespedeza, honeylocust, johnson grass, sumac, dogwood, and eastern red ceder, are present in some areas in large, monotypic stands. Trees that survive one or more seasons of severe anthracnose usually have swollen areas on trunks and branches where cankers were enveloped by new tissue (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994). 1996), Fungal disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and Pacific dogwood (Cornus nuttallii) trees (Daughtrey et al. 32:61-73. ... Bill was responsible for our invasive species strategy and deployment while I was at The Nature Conservancy. Windham, and S.C. Redlin. The New York Times. Species include the common dogwood Cornus sanguinea of Eurasia, the widely cultivated flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) of eastern North America, the Pacific dogwood Cornus nuttallii of western … Plant Disease. Images of dogwood anthracnose symptoms. 1996). National Invasive Species Information Center, Alien Forest Pest Explorer (AFPE): Alien Pest Range Maps, Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) - Dogwood Anthracnose, Gallery of Pests - Dogwood Anthracnose Disease, Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Dogwood Anthracnose, Plantwise Technical Factsheet - Anthracnose of Dogwood (, Dogwood Anthracnose and its Spread in the South (PDF | 483 KB), How to Identify and Control Dogwood Anthracnose, Forest Invasive Alien Species - Dogwood Anthracnose, Dogwood Anthracnose - Integrated Pest Management Solutions for the Landscaping Professional (PDF | 100 KB), Fact Sheet: Dogwood Anthracnose (PDF | 245 KB), Ground Covers, Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Ornamentals Fact Sheets, Dogwood Anthracnose - Plant Pathology Fact Sheet (Nov 2005) (PDF | 205 KB), Diagnostic Facts: Dogwood Anthracnose (Mar 2002) (PDF | 746 KB), Anthracnose Diseases of Dogwood (PDF | 313 KB), Anthracnose of Flowering Dogwood (PDF | 424 KB), Discula "Dogwood" Anthracnose - Pest Fact Sheet 39, Fact Sheets - Diseases: Dogwood Anthracnose, Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook - Dogwood (, Patterns of evolution in Discula fungi and the origin of dogwood anthracnose in North America, studied using arbitrarily amplified and ribosomal DNA, Dogwood anthracnose: understanding a disease new to North America. The disease kills dogwoods of all sizes, but it is most severe on young seedlings. Mycologia 83(5):633-642. Visually appealing and magnets for wildlife, these plants are bound to please both the gardener and naturalist in you. Figures 2-4. This species is invasive, but is considered a wetland plant, so it is not counted as invasive in our survey. 83:633-642. 1996. Byther, R.S. Amylostereum complex ... Dogwood Anthracnose Disease. Website developed by The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health and the National Park Service in cooperation with the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Invasive Plant Control, Inc., USDA Forest Service, Fall color is purplish to red. Hoffard, W.H., D.H. Marx, and H.D. 76:915-918. University of Kentucky. Mey. Discula destructiva is a fungus that has caused serious losses to North American native flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) and other native and introduced species (C. nuttallii and C. kousa, respectively) of dogwood found in the natural environment and in ornamental plantings. This species is known as Cornus racemose. Anthracnose infection of dogwood seedlings exposed to natural inoculum in western North Carolina. Although the origin of dogwood anthracnose is unknown, the results of DNA analysis combined with its rapid spread have led many to conclude it was introduced (Daughtrey et al. Found 59 Resources Page 1 of 1. – roughleaf dogwood Subordinate Taxa. Through educational outreach, strategic planning and active management we are … Dutch Elm Disease. Dogwood anthracnose has been reported on over 12 million acres in 180 counties (Anderson et al. Cornus florida, the flowering dogwood, is a species of flowering tree in the family Cornaceae native to eastern North America and northern Mexico.An endemic population once spanned from southernmost coastal Maine south to northern Florida and west to the Mississippi River. Leaf symptoms on C. florida generally occur within four weeks after flowering (Britton 1993, Hibben and Daughtrey 1988). 2 and 3), (2) shot holes, (3) necrotic blotches at the leaf tip or along the blade periphery, or (4) blight of the entire blade (Hibben and Daughtrey 1988) (Fig. Anderson, R.L., J.L. The health of southern forests. Environmental factors influence dogwood’s susceptibility to the disease. Images of dogwood anthracnose infections. Parasitic fungus affects region’s dogwood. Emerald Ash Borer. Dogwood anthracnose is a relatively new disease to North America. Mycologia. This specimen is also hearty, in that it perseveres transplantation and responds rather well to pruning. Daughtrey, J.L., C.R. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Windham, and S.C. Redlin. Plant Disease. 1996) Dogwood Anthracnose | National Invasive Species Information Center Hibben, K.O. 365 (Abstr.). 16 of 20. Brown. The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. ... 12 Species of Dogwood Trees and Shrubs 7 Species of Daisies for Your Flower Garden 18 Species of Holly Plants Dogwood is a small shrub, widespread along the woodland edges and hedgerows of southern England. 3(2):20-21. It is native to Eastern North America and is hardy in USDA zones 4 to 8. Bugwood Wiki. There is only one genus of dogwood in Canada — Cornus — but its species come in a variety of shapes and sizes. 1992. It produces an abundant display of yellowish-green flowers in spring and pinkish-red berries in summer. Trigiano, and M.T. 77:34-36. Dogwood anthracnose affects leaves, bracts, current-year shoots, localized areas of bark and cambium of the trunk or branches, fruits, and seeds of C. florida (Britton et al. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. The various species of dogwood are native throughout much of temperate and boreal Eurasia and North America, with China, Japan, and the southeastern United States being particularly rich in native species. Parham, J.M. 8 p. Windham, M.T., M.E. Ammirati. Cornus florida (Flowering Dogwood) Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) is a small, low-branched tree with spreading horizontal branches. Dogwood anthracnose and its spread in the South. Anthracnose infection of dogwood seedlings exposed to natural inoculum in western North Carolina. Like the Kousa, Cornelian Dogwoods form a canopy as they grow, making them great for shading and decoration, especially in the garden. Regeneration can be eliminated in some areas. Distinctive white flowers, 3″ in diameter, bloom mid-April to mid-May. Find Free Themes and plugins. Infection of dogwoods is most likely to occur during cool, wet weather in spring and fall but can also occur at any time during the growing season. Discula sp. At elevations below 2,000 feet, only dogwoods in cool, wet areas are dying (Anderson et al. Flowering Cornus (dogwood) trees are grown for their showy coloured bracts in late spring and early summer. Buddleia davidii is not the only shrub that has turned out to be invasive. FS. Daughtrey, M.L. that cause anthracnose of ash, oak, and sycamore, Redlin (1991) described and named the pathogen Discula destructiva Redlin in 1991 (Daughtrey and Hibben 1994, Daughtrey et al. Researchers also speculate that climatic changes and droughts may have predisposed trees to infection, thus causing coincidental outbreaks in the Northeast and the Pacific Northwest (Anderson et al. Lantana . Alder Dieback. 1992, Hoffard et al. The crimson colour of its leaves in autumn, and its strikingly red twigs, make it a popular ornamental plant, so it is frequently planted in parks and gardens. Windham. Annual Review of Photopathology. 1996. 2001. 1994. At elevations between 2,000 to 3,000 feet, dogwoods in the shade are affected. The latter two are introduced species that have earned a place in American gardens because they are more disease resistant than native species. Latin Name Common Name . February 24: 34-37. Table 1 identifies a selection of alternative plants, trees and shrubs (categories A to M) that can be used in place of invasive species. Cooperative Extension Service. In the eastern United States, the disease has spread rapidly down the Appalachians, primarily on Cornus florida, the eastern flowering dogwood. A species profile for Dogwood Anthracnose. Overall, vigorous trees tend to be less damaged than weak trees. and R.M. Purple-rimmed lesions (Parham and Windham 1992) or shot holes predominate on leaves exposed to sunlight, while necrotic blotches predominate on shaded leaves (Parham and Windham 1992). Leaf spots vary according to light exposure. In general, damage is most severe at elevations above 3,000 feet, where forest and ornamental dogwoods may be eliminated. Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Shrubby Cornus alba , C. sericea and C. sanguinea are grown for their vivid winter stem colour, while shrubby C.mas (the cornelian cherry) is grown for its winter flowers and summer fruits. Knighten, M. Windham, K. Langdon, F. Hendrix, R. and Roncadori. Ornamentals Northwest Newsletter. Hibben, K.O. Southern Region. Unfortunately, much of the lake is occupied by the two invasive species: Brazilian waterweed and parrotfeather. p. 31–35. Discula destructiva. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County. Ophiostoma ulmi. Disease severity in the South seems to be more intense at higher elevations. Green Gardening Program. Discula destructiva sp. C. kousa also is considered a host, but leaf infection is generally minimal (Daughtrey et al. Stems show similar symptoms as seen in Figure 5 with a canker at the base of an epicormic branch and Figure 6 showing conidia (spores) exuded from a dead twig infected with Discula destructiva. Current Genetics 39(5-6):346-354. Oregon State University. Clusters of glossy red fruit in fall persist into winter and are relished by birds. 1993, Daughtrey and Hibben 1983). This species is less prone to becoming invasive than most species on this list. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Blighting commonly occurs throughout the canopy of understory C. florida, or within the interior canopy or on epicormic branches of exposed trees. 1994). Montgomery, and K. Langdon. Seattle Public Utilities (Washington). Dogwood Lake is a 3.5-acre waterbody in Trumbull, Connecticut. 4). Lower branch dieback, a new disease of northern dogwoods. The .gov means it’s official. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Regional Dogwood Workshop. Effects of tree placement on dogwood anthracnose severity and lesion growth rates in urban landscapes and wooded areas. Phytopathology. Dogwood Tree Types. Lake is occupied by the U.S. government Cornus species their fruits is detrimental. Well to pruning below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles a Plant for all No. You live in Canada — Cornus — but its species come in a variety of shapes sizes! Leaf infection during rainy periods increase the impact of anthracnose on dogwoods ( Britton 1993, Hibben and 1988... Lakes, rivers and landscapes where you live in Canada, chances are there is a small shrub widespread! Introduced species that have earned a place in American gardens because they are more prone to invasive... 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