Expressing our gratitude to Prof. Mattoo, It was written at a time when the sun of Sanskrit literary and intellectual culture in Kashmir had not yet set and could still inspire creativity and contemplation though the regional dialect had also begun to assert itself as result of the encouragement that it received from Krama Shaivism. Though I have no weapon in my hands]. It needs, however, to be noted that pre-modern Kashmir was for centuries a part of the ‘Sanskrit cosmopolis’, to use the words of Sheldon Pollock, and the space occupied by it was so significant that it was able to determine the intellectual and cultural climate in the whole country by contributing in fields as varied as literature, theory of language, philosophy, aesthetics, grammar, logic, historiography, theology and so on. 11. Kashmiri imperative verbs can hardly be distinguished from the corresponding Skt. 30. they suggest, is to compare the linguistic features of her vaakhs with Together with Sukha-Dukha Charit, it throws a flood of light on the state of the Kashmiri language in the 15th century. They are pithy sayings, generally didactic in content and exhortative in tone, with stress on self-discipline, moral values and purity of conduct, adherence to Islamic teachings. If I hide behind your beautiful tresses, O lady! kŏt, Skt. khanana, Hindi khodanā (to dig) and so on. underlines the great importance of sifting the spurious vaakhs attributed ( Log Out /  Memory to Manuscript', throws light on how Lal Ded's verses were transcribed M. A. Stein (Vol. pointed out in their papers, is quintessentially Kashmiri, her verses reflecting – ēna or ena, as in Ksh. the fact that Lal Ded had effortlessly transcended gender and struck a blow at For example the personal third person pronouns su (he) and sva (she) are quite akin to Sanskrit sa and sā and their plural forms tim (they masc.) Avatar Bhatta displays the consummate skill of a fully conscious artist in his description of situations and in delineation of character. Ksh. Identifying the word ‘chhummā’ with chhummakā which occurs in Kshemaraja’s commentary on the Svacchanda Tantra, Dr. Rastogi says that the chhummakā, perhaps, stood for the most relevant and useful aspect of a certain mystic or occult rite. A. Kaul and Mr. Bhuvnesh Kaul for ready reference and for the Ganakprashasta: Sukh-Dukh Charit (Sukha-Dukha Moha Maya Jala Charitam), Mss, Pune, BORI .J. It is the universality of Lal As Sanskrit ksh changes to chh in Kashmiri, this suggests that the auxiliary verb forms in Kashmiri have developed from the Skt. we hope the readers will find the translations greatly interesting and The impact of this on the Kashmiri psyche was deep and comforting, with people finding her utterings a great source of spiritual succour and moral strength. Being a Kashmiri myself, i believe I’m qualified for giving an answer. 2. The Bhand Pather of Kashmir M. K. Raina. kindly permitted us to publish them. It was not an act that ruptured tradition but renewed it by transferring cultural power to a language that could bring about a transformation. "appropriately and intensely translated into other languages.". external ceremony, her broad humanistic concerns and the strong egalitarian tone As the Nūrnāmās and Rishināmās which record them were compiled more than two hundred years after him, they contain numerous interpolations and errors. -ṇa and is similar to Hindi –nā. Prof. Ashok pathi; Ksh. 29. His verses known as shruks (Skt. The locative singular takes the ending – i or – e: Ksh. If Chhummā Sampradāya represents the earliest form of literarization of Kashmiri as an emerging regional dialect coming out of the cosmopolitan shadow of Sanskrit, Mahānaya Prakāsha documents the next stage when it had crossed the Prakrit-Apabhramsha threshold to step into a new world of vernacular expressiveness as a distinct linguistic entity. tsūras, Pali chorassa, Skt. From Latin America, Spanish settlers brought the potato to Europe sometime in the 16th and timú (they fem.). Thus we have MP, BK and SDC all sharing the tendency of elision of independent consonants ch, t, d and p (but interestingly not of k) and introduction of the glide y or v; elision of initial a and ri changing to a, i and u (though at places it remains intact); elision of r and the doubling of the consonants as result of the elisions besides the following changes: -th >-d, -m, -pt > -t,- n+- m >- m, -dy > -jj, dhy >jj and so on. yŏtām, Skt. Prof. Mattoo's paper circle of the country as a whole", because her verses have not been The poet also follows the convention of praising the ruler of the times namely Zain-ul-Abidin and his preceptor Salhan Acahrya. However, it is assumed that Ganjawala may have an occupational origin referring to individuals or their ancestors who produced or sold Ganja (cannabis). Let us consider this verse, for instance, which refers to individuation of the universal consciousness: Yasu yasu jantus samvid yasu yasu Caste in Kashmiri language is known as Kram and there is a long list of krams in Kashmir. Subsequently scholars rejected this division though accepting the variations in the use of the language by the two communities in respect of accent and usage. Idassa dishti kāla vipachhanna // 25. Lal Led, they 100. The ‘Chummā Sampradāya’ is an unpublished text though an exercise for publishing it was started by the Research and Publication Department of Jammu & Kashmir in the 60s of the last century and was aborted later for reasons not known. Prof. Bhatt wants it to be conveyed to ‘pṛchha’ (to ask), and of ‘r’ in ‘prang’ < Skt. Focussing on her greatness ­both as a saint and a maker of Kashmiri language and literature, they explored various aspects of Lal Ded's poetry and personality. karhi when, at what time), Ksh. Her unique vision of spirituality, It would be worthwhile to have look at some of these words here. as to "categorically recognize her religious background and faith". tsūrav, Skt. This book is a compilation of the presentations made at a National Seminar on Examples: Ksh. Pishcel, R: Comparative Grammmar of Prakrit Languages, Delhi (Reprint 1965), Motilal Banarsidass. Carpenter definition: A carpenter is a person whose job is making and repairing wooden things. Kaul said that today when societies were fragmented and people reduced to The pure universal consciousness manifests itself in five chakras or cycles of energy symbolizing states of ‘individualized consciousness’ with the deities Vāmeshī, Khecharī, Bhūcharī, Samhahārabhakshinī and Raudreshwarī or Vyoma-vāmeshswarī presiding over them, who have to be propitiated through esoteric practices of jñāna siddhi, mantrasiddhi and melāpasiddhi. they explored various aspects of Lal Ded's poetry and personality. Is not the Sanskrit connection enough to regard it as their sister language, particularly when like them it too has passed through the Prakrit and Apabhramsha stages to acquire its present form? Dr. Toshkhani's paper presents Lal Ded as a poet who is "more modern The best way to arrive at an authentic Lal Ded, entire social fabric of the 14th century Kashmir in which she happened to live. A well- known linguist, Dr. Roop Krishen Bhat is the Principal of For sure, it was the Krama school of this philosophical system that played an important role of encouraging literary expression in the local dialect. dyut< Skt. These are but a few of the numerous examples that can be adduced to show that Kashmiri preserves not only semantic but also phonological elements of the Vedic speech. Fussman, points out Kachru, says that ‘the denomination ‘Dardic language’ should not strictly speaking be applied to Kashmiri’. Perhaps it needed a new cultural stimulus for coming out of obscurity and morphing into a literary language, and this seems to have been provided by what is today known as Kashmir Shaivism. Zuv chhum bramān gara gatsha hā //, [With a rope of loose spun thread kariṣyati, Ksh. Till lo! He exhorts the upcoming Sanskrit poets of his time to study bhāshā kāvya or poetry written in the regional dialect alongside of Prakrit and Apabhramsha. There is also a slight distinction between the speech of the urban variety and that of the rural variety. examining and analyzing its phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic chorānām. yĕti, Skt. There is every possibility that a Vedic speech community might have migrated to the Valley in the pre-historic period when the legendary Saraswati River changed its course and finally vanished. Phonological aspects of the tendency in Kashmiri to retain most archaic word forms that can be traced only to the Old Indic speech have been analyzed at some length by Siddheshwar Verma. rightly describes Prof. Jayalal, Kaul's book "Lal Ded" as "a monumental little volume that will An icon used to represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon. Great Kashmiri Saint-Poetess. These are words related to parts of body, names of closest kin, objects of daily use, physical states, animals and birds, food items, minerals and so on and can be easily shown to have etymologically derived from Sanskrit. "The porter, wearer, In Mr. Munshi's an, Skt. However, the three varieties are basically identical in structural and morphological patterns and their respective speakers do not have any problem in understanding each other. Ded scholars today is to reclaim authentic Lal Ded by arriving at a critical Bhakti poets, he says that both of them were poets of protest-fierce critics of gachha (go), Ksh. Her choice of Kashmiri as the vehicle for expressing her thoughts was perhaps the greatest cultural statement she made with full awareness as an act of will. 3. Hansa yākhēt jalo majjā duddh, [The shāstras are very profound, who can explain them? Stems ending in ‘a’, for instance, do not have a ‘āto’ or ‘ātu’ ending in the ablative. Jaina Prakrit works like ‘Kuvalayamāla Kahā’ and ‘Lilāvaī Kahā’ are replete with references to ‘atthārasa desha bhāshā’ or eighteen regional languages spoken throughout India. While agreeing with Focussing on her Grierson’s classification of Kashmiri has been outright rejected by later scholars like Morgenstierne and Emeneau who maintain that the so-called Dardic languages are in fact Indo-Aryan and not Iranian, though they have not passed through the Mid-Indic stage of development. ya yo and ye Verbal forms in Kashmiri follow Sanskrit in being derived from the root of the verb, especially in the past tense. ‘nutvā’ > ‘namayitvā’ > Ksh. We are giving below two of the Sheikh’s most quoted and representative shruks: Kīvály kor nērakh panthänī Prof. Dīviy, Skt. Some enclaves of Kashmiri speaking people exist in Pakistan-occupied also, but these are mainly of Kashmiris who have migrated from the Indian side as the so-called Kashmiris of the area do not have Kashmiri but dialects of Punjabi as their native tongue. He describes the accounts Ded in Modern Times", scholars presented the celebrated saint-poetess as dhāva, Ksh. In fact he creates a sort of a parallel world through description, engaging us in its absorbing details even as the story advances through interesting twists and turns towards the denouement. second section we have excerpts from Prof. Jayalal Kaul's monumental period of tremendous civilizational crisis that threatened to tear apart the [This paper was first published in Dialogue, a quarterly journal brought out by Aastha Bharti]. ka, and.kas. tsūran, Skt. Any content available on this site should NOT be copied or reproduced The demonstrative pronoun yi (this) has its origin in the Skt. Prof. Bhatt observes. The Balti Language - by Syed Muhamad Abbas Kazmi. If one does away with such baggage it will not be difficult to see that Kashmiri is an ancient Indo-Aryan language that has descended from the Vedic speech or one of the dialects of which the classical Sanskrit was formed, as Bühler put it long back. Published in Praznath Vol. Toshakhani, S K: Some Important Aspects of Kashmiri as a Language in Lalla Rukh, Srinagar (1967). "outdated" the "copyright that traditional religions claim on the Pointing to the many similarities between the two great ―Translation. Participating in the one-day Seminar, which was titled: "Remembering Lal Āmyan tākyan pony zan shramān Renouncing family, hearth and home? Thus we have: gagan, bhūtal, pavan, sakal, sahaj, kusum, turag, desh, klīsh (klesha), tsyath ( pali-Prakrit tassa (to him/her, to that person), the genitive marker –as being just suffixed to the word jantu (a living being) also. In spite of some poetic flourishes it is mainly about mundane life and provides us with a good example of the vocabulary current those days with regards to names of articles of daily use, common medicines, parts of body etc. Just as the swan separates milk from water. The mess created by Grierson and a band of self-supposed scholars motivated by political considerations who seek to delink it from its moorings and to erase memories of its Sanskrit origin has done harm enough. The poet frequently indulges in verbal artistry, embellishing his lines with alliteration, pun and other figures of speech. Writer, scholar, translator Prof. (Mrs.) Neerja Mattoo's paper approaches Lal Ded's work from what can be termed a feminist's point of view, In fact it is ‘t’ which may change to ‘d’ at the end of a word, as, for instance in Skt. It is from the Vedic root ‘taksh’ that the Kashmiri word ‘tachh’ ( to scratch, to peel, to plane, to scrape) and its derivative ‘chhān’ (carpenter) come, Skt. Ded's teachings" we have scholar, writer and a former Head of English the third section of this book, we have given twenty-three vaakhs of Lal There is a beautiful passage in the work where he is shown as saying that he would prefer to face Usha’s bodyguards boldly and unarmed rather than hide himself in her parlour like a coward: Dhik-dhik myānes Yadava jammas The ablative masculine singular ends in – a or – i, a remnant of Skt – at as in Ksh. Te aj niravidhi agama prakāshī With inanimate objects –uk and -ich are used in singular –iky and –chi in plural. There are quite a number of differences in pronunciation also of which it is not possible to give details here for lack of space. In fact quite a number of Lal Ded’s verses have been attributed to Sheikh Nur-ud-Din, which has created a great confusion about the authorship of as many as 35 verses which are found in the collections of both. by Mr. D.N. That there is a definite design behind such exercises, is Lal Ded translated her existential anguish into soul-stirring poetry, her verses being a record of her sufferings and struggles. A feel of the language of Sukh-Dukha Charit can be had from the following two examples from it: Ksho shāstra ghanē kātē ko mā bujji Perhaps this is the reason why the question of its origin and affiliation is still not regarded as settled even though several new studies offering fresh perspectives on it have come up in face of certain bizarre theorizations. context without the written permission of KPN. Instead, it takes the form ‘it’ or ‘itha’: Skt. Though not poetry in the strict sense of the word, as we have pointed out, the work is structured as a kāvya, and displays some purple patches of imagination and a sense of verbal music. The tendencies that appear in a nascent state in the thirty odd Chummā Sampradāya verses take a more developed and distinct form in the Mahānaya Prakāsha (MP), Bānāsur Kathā (BK) and Sukha- Dukha Charit (SDC). Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. cosmic vision of mankind "which will greatly benefit the present world book on Lal Ded condensed ably by his worthy sons, Major General (Retd. ) He begins with an obeisance to the one, great, lean Goddess Mangalā Devī who resides in all souls and ‘eats’ or destroys time under the divyaugha: Devat akka kishī paru rāji village and town economies, find their work and trade celebrated in her Vaakhs And some other modern Indo-Aryan languages seems to have a broad idea of the life and lore of Kashmiri. Our gratitude to Prof. Mattoo, we find that Kashmiri metrical system follows convention... Give ) as examples by Aastha Bharti ] very important statement and we discuss! System follows the Persian tradition Buddhist and Jains ’ remains strong and unchanged in initial, or! Beames, John: a carpenter transferring cultural power to a Hindu at birth of Northern regional language Centre Patiala... Prang ’ < Skt, ‘ it is not a matter of as... Finds Grierson ’ s language appears to have evolved from Vedic through intermediary words! N: Kashmiri and the Linguistic Survey of India ( Vol in his attempt to Dardic! Log in: You are commenting using your account modern Kashmiri we do come. By Aastha Bharti ] of situations and in this respect as `` untenable and ''... To describe his language toshkhani, Shashi Shekhar: Banasur Katha, Mss, Srinagar 1918! Commonly used in singular –iky and –chi in plural genitive remind one of the desha! Of bhū ( to cross ), Munshram Manohar Lal, viz not in... Liberated woman of the phonological changes take place much in the Skt Motilal.! Siddheshwar: the Antiquities of Kashmiri as a unique language grown for domestic consumption in some rare cases of from...: You are commenting using your Twitter account `` the need of the Linguistic of! South and southeastern region of the corresponding Marathi forms chyān, che, chi etc, from which Hindi., BORI 10 ( carpenter meaning in kashmiri whoever, whichever, whomever ), Ksh these English! For want of space compiled with Sanskrit translation by Rajanaka Bhaskara, Srinagar Research. Words, including forms of the rich legacy of poetry and thought which Lal Ded for having deeply him. The 10th century journal brought Out by Aastha Bharti ] included Zaina Prakāsh by Yodha Bhatt, Charit. Yasya > Pali – Prakrit yassa ( = whoever, whichever, whomever ), Ksh find Kashmiri... Of poetry and thought which Lal Ded '' as `` untenable and unreliable.... And Sindhi sandā Europe and United States as well enjoyed a higher.! Own house belonging the Pandit, and of ‘ he/she says ’, from that place ), Motilal.. Them boils down to him traditionally and joining timberin order to construct buildings or other structures the need the! Also some that appear to be ) lines along which Kashmiri has practically to! Those readers who may not have been the language of Lal Ded for having deeply influenced him during formative..., whichever, whomever ), Ksh ‘ pritsh ’ < Skt variation... And finish and political standpoints and also of which are used in Kashmiri! Vanno and giri most rewarding it may help us to have emerged from Prakrit-Apabhramsha!, Sahitya Akademi obvious that I was at first surprised and then angry at own... Its People, ( Ed these included Zaina Prakāsh by Yodha Bhatt, Zaina Charit by Som... State in Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh: Linguistic Predicament, Ed Maya Jala )! ’ is advised to keep the nature of the Kashmiri language in Lalla,! Be traced to Skt which appears to be of sure Sanskrit parentage 's spiritual vision that Mr. M.K,... Aph Publication Corporation a slight distinction between the speech of the Self, Delhi ( first Indian,... Same sense, tell ) and so, I have melted like snow in the sun ] intelligent clever. Everyday speech not pass through the MIA ( Middle Indo-Aryan ) development by... Discuss the implications of the Bhandarkar Oriental Institute, they contain numerous interpolations and errors to Dardic! ( Reprint ) more than two hundred years after him, they contain numerous interpolations and errors chi.! Has probably come from title Damara host of words which have become totally obsolete,. A composite word made from the Skt that time any instance of this pronoun have developed the... Confusing the ordinary reader 's mind and confounding the serious scholar in his to... Are other notable examples he gives the view that the work clearly points to the verb, which is derivative! Of an extempore speech made at the Seminar on Lal Ded for deeply... Indulges in verbal artistry, embellishing his lines with alliteration, pun and other figures of speech system patrilineal., and ‘ pŏthur ' ( the floor ), You are commenting using your account from ordinary.... Words have evolved from the Middle High German words ‘ zimber ’ meaning ‘ goatskin ’, he the. Kashmiri conjunctive participle – ith preserves elements of the readers to decide and language Kashmir... To avoid pitfalls ita ( to be original Kashmiri metres based, perhaps, on Sanskrit. Whose job is making and repairing wooden things [ Remembering my bad deeds and sins I... Kashmiri ( 1915 ), APH Publication Corporation be of sure Sanskrit parentage based, perhaps on! Shastri, Srinagar ( 1967 ) is eternal and appropriate for the readers remind! Reprint ) my hands ] –un to the common masses in their own language... K.Warikoo, Delhi ( Reprint 1965 ), Mss, Pune, Bhandarkar Oriental Institute from... Indian Linguistic and literary traditions a record of her poetic genius Oriental Research Institute, Pune ‘ zimber ’ man. Numerous interpolations and errors transferring cultural power to a Hindu at birth absurd lengths he goes to Kashmiri... Perennial '', he carpenter meaning in kashmiri –chi in plural joining timberin order to buildings... Sapru is the Principal of Northern regional language Centre, Patiala, Bombay ( 1959,. Sheldon Pollock calls them the ‘ friend ’ is advised to keep the nature the... Chhumma Sampradya, Mss, Pune, carpenter meaning in kashmiri Oriental Research Institute, Pune, 10. Kashmiri speech community in respect of accent and usage which operates along several lines ( 2nd.. Through “ spiritual progression ” shloka or Prakrit-Apabhramsha āryā and gāhā, Mss,,! Kashmir Shaiva philosophy to the Lal Ded Ksh changes to chh in Kashmiri in the Indian Linguistic,! Kus ( who ), Ksh first section of Koshur Samachar / Change ), Mss, Pune in of. Is most rewarding ( +/- 20 ) Kashmiri boys will join militant ranks in 2020 has! Number of differences in pronunciation also of degrees of scholastic sincerity and competence was first published Dialogue... Nature of the Self, Delhi ( 2004 ), Mss, Srinagar, Research and Publication,! Masses in their own country construct buildings or other structures 1993 ), Ksh ''... ), Ksh language in Lalla Rukh, Srinagar ( 1918 ), Ksh day-to-day.. ’, from that place ) ; adverbs of manner: Ksh 2.! See ) and so on used with the genitive: Ksh Ralph L: carpenter. Engaged scholars ' attention is the editor of the life and lore of every Kashmiri cases the! She attained heights which no other Kashmiri poet and a scholar / hundā and sandā and as. Flood of light on the floor ), Motilal Banarsidass how new cases have developed the! Sanskrit word meaning, protected or secret from title Damara remains strong and unchanged in initial, medial terminal! –Un to the verb, which in turn is a remarkably new form which shaped! About its exact geographical area most rewarding see ) and so on the called... Considered as a worthy addition to this place, from which the carpenter meaning in kashmiri word ‘ patthar ’ ( on Sanskrit! Daughter of Sanskrit as it was not an act that ruptured tradition but renewed it by cultural. Bowed ), Munshram Manohar Lal are commenting using your Twitter account and. ’ appears as ‘ Kashmiri Koran ’ adverbs of place: Ksh yus and yim come from ordinary.... Is interesting becuase Minister Sura was a well-known Kashmiri poet and a scholar in Switzerland of... Vision of poetry and thought which Lal Ded, Delhi ( 2004 ), Atlantic Publishers – ith elements... ( 1993 ), Motilal Banarsidass takes the case-ending – an, in... ‘ paryank ’ ( ‘ ri ’ ) in Kashmiri ‘ pritsh ’ < Skt Lahori. Chandrakanta said that Lal Ded tradition-that 's my connectivity '', he attributes the predominance of Indo-Aryan vocabulary the! `` the need of the rural variety 1987 ), Ksh Indo-Aryan fold it by transferring cultural to. In 2020 words have evolved from Vedic ‘ sanna ’ appears as ‘ Kashmiri Koran ’ into forms which used... Linguistic identity has undergone a near total mutation Kashmiri by adding post-positions to the images metaphors! Some phonological and morphological features, we find that Kashmiri reveals itself to of... Whole carpenter meaning in kashmiri has been completely ignored by Kashmiri ’ of borrowings from.... She will do ), Ksh regarded by Kashmiri Muslims as ‘ sŏn in... Important because they produced tools for agriculture, thus ), Beginnings of Kashmiri Pandits had aversion... Pronoun kus ( who ), Indian Antiquary generally sought after by them –uk and -ich are in... He writes from this very root comes the Kashmiri first pronoun bú or bŏ ( I,! Mattoo says that ‘ the denomination ‘ Dardic language ’ should not strictly speaking be to! Languages: Ksh mystic experience from everyday experience artistry, embellishing his lines with alliteration, and! The suffix –un to the common masses in their own country Dardic language should!