The issue of greased cartridges and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the factor for the Revolt of 1857. The Revolt began at Meerut, ... On 24 April 1857, ninety men of the 3rd Native Cavalry refused to accept the greased cartridges. The Indian soldiers were introduced to the new Enfield Rifle for the first time. This incident sparked off a general mutiny among the sepoys of Meerut. Several months of increasing tensions coupled with various incidents preceded the actual rebellion. I, on the other hand, have shown through several different sources that the greased cartridges were indeed the essential point in the Indian Mutiny of 1857, and therefore the main cause. OR Question - Years after the Battle of Plassey, anger against the oppressive British Government took the form of a rising that shook the foundations of British rule in India. (a) They are not allowed to go out of their states. Large landholders in northern India also rose up, since the British East India Company had confiscated land and redistributed it to the peasantry. The British government disbanded the British East India Company and took direct control of India, bringing an end to the Mughal Empire. This war was not spread throughout India but it was limited to few areas mainly Meerut, Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow etc. The revolt of 1857 was supposed to have started on May 31, 1857 as decided. Fat of the hen b. The episode of greased cartridges, however, was a big enough issue to start the rebellion on its own. The 34 Native Infantry was disbanded and sepoys guilty of rebellion were punished. This suppressed discontent bursted out with the use of greased cartridges in the Enfield Rifles. They released their companions and murdered a few European officers. The Greased Cartridges supplied for new Enfield Rifels was the immediate cause for the Revolt of 1857. It was too much of a disgrace and this incident sent a wave of indignation. 2) Prior to the outbreak of the Revolt, Bahadur Shah Zafar lived in Delhi as a pensioner of the British. These 85 soldiers were court-martialled and imprisoned for 10 years. Meerut: April 24, 1857, was a Friday. Princely families joined the uprising due to changes to the inheritance law which made adopted children ineligible to assume the throne. In Bihar, the Revolt was led by Kunwar Singh, a zamindar of Jagdishpur. Col Carmichael Smith, commandant of the 3rd Bengal Light Cavalry Regiment, had ordered 90 sepoys to assemble and use the disputed “greased cartridges”. In January 1857,British introduced a new cartridge of en-field rifle greased with pig and cow fats, soldiers had to chew it before use. In August, the passage of the Government of India Act dissolved the British East India Company. The revolutionaries reached from Meerut to Delhi on 11th May, 1857 and the small British garrison at Delhi was not able to resist and consequently fell into their hands within 2 days. When this news spread many sepoys started the revolt. This rebellion was a major anti-colonial movement against the aggressive imperialist policies of the British. A rumour spread that the cartridges of the new Enfield rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs. THE REVOLT OF 1857 INTRODUCTION THE REVOLT OF 1857 INTRODUCTION INDIA IN 1857 One hundred years after the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the smouldering embers of resentment and anger against the unjust, exploitative and oppressive British government exploded into flames and shook the very foundation of the British rule in India. Indian Rebellion of 1857: Siege of Lucknow, Seven Years' War: Major General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, Biography of Tipu Sultan, the Tiger of Mysore, India's secret history: 'A holocaust, one where millions disappeared, J.D., University of Washington School of Law, B.A., History, Western Washington University. Thus, by making one small change to its munitions, the British managed to greatly offend both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. Queen Victoria became the Empress of India. The last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was blamed for the revolt (though he played little role in it). The grease used included tallow supplied by the Indian firm of Gangadarh Banerji & Co. By January, the rumours were abroad that the Enfield cartridges were greased with animal fat. But when he heard about inhuman attitude of Gen. O’Neil towards Indians, he became very furious and killed all the British. They were courtmartialled and sentenced to ten years rigorous Peasants were none too happy either, though—they joined the revolt to protest heavy land taxes imposed by the British. Match the following: A: B: 1. THE REVOLT OF 1857. Q.3- The greased cartridges given to the Indian soldiers was made of what? The main event which became the immediate cause of the war was the refusal of the Sepoys to use the grease covered cartridges (greased with fat of pig and cow) on January 23, 1857. In fact, Britain reacted to the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the "crown jewel" of its empire. Major Events of the revolt of 1857 2nd February 1857 – Revolt of the 19th foot regiment at Behrampur. This article deals with ‘ Revolt of 1857 – UPSC.’ This is part of our series on ‘Modern History’ which is important pillar of GS-1 syllabus . Rumors began to spread in 1856 that the grease on the cartridges was made from a mixture of beef tallow and pork lard. It was too much of a disgrace and this incident sent a wave of indignation. The Company had upgraded to the new Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle, which used greased paper cartridges. In order to open the cartridges and load the rifles, soldiers (known as sepoys) had to bite into the paper and tear it with their teeth. They refused to touch the greased cartridges. The episode of greased cartridges, however, was a big enough issue to start the rebellion on its own. The British government exiled him to Rangoon, Burma. On 6th May, 1857 A.D. 85 out of 90 Indian soldiers at Meerut refused to bite the greased cartridges with their teeth. The Indian revolt lasted until June 1858. The new Enfield rifle had been introduced for the first time in the Indian army. My dear friend At this conjuncture I believe that the reasons for the Revolt of 1857 is indeed many, the prime and the most important one being the religious sentiments being hurt. a. This was an attempt by the British to control royal succession in the princely states that were nominally independent from the British. Q.4- Who was the leader of the Revolt of 1857? Both Hindu and Muslim sepoys refused to use them. a. Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi b. TantiyaTope c. Nana Saheb d. Bahadur Shah Zafar. He died on April 27, 1858, leaving behind a glorious record of valour and bravery. It was called the Sepoy Mutiny by the British. ADVERTISEMENTS: Various causes were responsible for the Revolt of 1857. When the atmosphere was surcharged with an anti-British feeling the episode of the greased cartridges provided the spark which turned it into a conflagration. Instead of relying heavily on Bengali troops from the Punjab, the British began to recruit soldiers from the "martial races"—those considered particularly warlike, including the Gurkhas and the Sikhs. To load it, the sepoys had to bite off the ends of lubricated cartridges. This rebellion was a major anti-colonial movement against the aggressive imperialist policies of the British. 10th May 1857 : Ninety sepoys of 3rd Native Regiment at Meerut revolted on the issue of the greased cartridges. The course of the Revolt: The Sepoys brokeout into open revolt at Meerut in April 1857. Question 10. Who was the Indian rulers under the Doctrine of Lapse introduced by Lord Dalhousie? British manufacturers soon changed the cartridges in an attempt to calm the spreading anger among the soldiers, but this move backfired. In order to regain Delhi, Sir John Lawrence sent a strong British force commanded by John Nicholson. Before loading these rifles the sepoys had to bite off the paper on the cartridges. Company officials who abused or even murdered Indians were seldom punished properly: Even if they were tried, they were rarely convicted, and those who were convicted could avoid punishment by filing endless appeals. SPREAD OF REVOLT: On 29th March, 1857, the Brahmin sepoy, Mangal Pandey of Barrackpore refused to use the greased cartridge and fired at his adjutant. The Revolt of 1857 started as a _____ of the sepoys. The Revolt of 1857 eventually broke out over the incident of greased cartridges. Rejecting the issue of greased cartridges as the cause of the rebellion, he wondered whether it was not a national revolt, a ‘great and formidable rebellion.’ Official writings about 1857 revolt set the trend for imperialist historiography. Though he was eighty years old, he played a prominent part in the revolt. Immediate causes for the Revolt of 1857 was the greased cartridges supplied for the new Enfield Rifles. Its cartridges had a greased cover which had to be bitten off before loading the cartridge in the rifle. Political, social, economic, military and other factors contributed to the making of the Revolt of 1857. The Greased Cartridge The Heroes and Villains of 1857-58. General Survey. The Greased Cartridge: The Heroes and Villains of 1857-58 (English Edition) eBook: E. Jaiwant Paul: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop When the atmosphere was surcharged with an anti-British feeling the episode of the greased cartridges provided the spark which turned it into a conflagration. I, on the other hand, have shown through several different sources that the greased cartridges were indeed the essential point in the Indian Mutiny of 1857, and therefore the main cause. Immediate causes for the Revolt of 1857 was the greased cartridges supplied for the new Enfield Rifles. Thus, out of the 90 sepoys, 85 troops refused to use them. A general sense of racial superiority among the British fueled Indian anger across the country. The Immediate Cause The atmosphere was so surcharged that even a small issue could lead to revolt. 29 March 1857 – The sepoys at Barrackpore refused to use the fat greased cartridges. The Revolt of 1857-58 was the biggest and bloodiest conflict against any European colonial power during the nineteenth century. On 9 May 1857, eighty five of them were dismissed, sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment, and put into fetters. The 34 Native Infantry was disbanded and sepoys guilty of rebellion were punished. … Series of local risings & civil disturbances was not a rare occurrence in British India . 6. a. greased cartridge, and shot down his sergeant. The sepoy named Mangal Pandey attacked and killed his adjutant. Musket cartridges circa 1858 The Sepoys in the East India Company were first issued with the Enfield Pattern 1853 rifle-musket in 1857. In addition, British officers and missionaries began to preach Christianity to the Hindu and Muslim sepoys. The cartridges had to be bitten off by mouth before loading. At the same time, an Indian sepoy killed two British officers at Barrackpore, when he was forced to use greased cartridges. Its cartridges had a greased cover which had to be bitten off before loading the cartridge in the rifle. Causes of 1857 Revolt. The sepoys and the people fought gallantly up to the very end. This War was fought in 1857 by Indians against the British in order to get rid of their domination. At last, the Commander-in-Chief General Collin Campbell, marched towards Lucknow and captured it after a fierce battle in March 1858. The Immediate Cause The atmosphere was so surcharged that even a small issue could lead to revolt. Q.3- The greased cartridges given to the Indian soldiers was made of what? Unfortunately, the Indian Revolt of 1857 did not result in freedom for India. 2. 4) The immediate cause of the Revolt was the issue of greased cartridges. The Greased Cartridges supplied for new Enfield Rifels was the immediate cause for the Revolt of 1857. The company also tried to undermine the caste system, which seemed inherently unfair to post-Enlightenment British sensibilities. Though the revolt was unsuccessful, the spirit of the people remained unshaken. Most of the European historians have pointed out that it was a revolt of Indian soldiers who were offended at the use of greased cartridges. The Revolt began at Meerut, ... On 24 April 1857, ninety men of the 3rd Native Cavalry refused to accept the greased cartridges. The revolt was the conscious beginning of the Independence struggle against the Britishers that began on May 10, 1857, at Meerut as sepoy mutiny which was was initiated by sepoys in the Bengal Presidency against the British officers. The previous evening, the sepoys had taken an oath not to touch the cartridges. The sepoys' revolt began in Meerut, the first area to receive the new weapons. 4.06.74 c. 4.06.75 d. 4.06.72. He fought the British in Bihar and then joined Nana Sahib’s forces and took part in various encounters with the English in Oudh and Central India. REVOLT OF 1857 The Indian ... greased cartridge production was initiated at Fort William, Calcutta, following a British design. This fits appropriately with the definitions given for main cause, as well as shows the audience that even respectable sources such as the BBC and avid researchers are in agreement with my own position. The unrest soon spread to other army divisions and towns across north and central India. Both Hindu and Muslim sepoys refused to use them. 29 March 1857 – The sepoys at Barrackpore refused to use the fat greased cartridges. the problem of greased cartridges in India in the time of the revolt of 1857 was..... because the greased catridges were made up of beaf of cows and pork of pigs. Religion also prompted some Indians to join the mutiny. The revolt of 1857 was supposed to have started on May 31, 1857 as decided. Eating cows, of course, is forbidden by Hinduism, while consumption of pork is forbidden by Islam. On 9 May 1857, they were severely punished for this. Its cartridges consisted of a.577 inch ball projectile and a charge of gun powder propellant wrapped in waterproofed cartridge paper. 5) The Revolt ended the rule of … It was called the Sepoy Mutiny by the British. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 is also called the Indian Mutiny, the Sepoy Mutiny, North India's First War of Independence or North India's first struggle for independence. One cannot but admire the patriotic spirit of boatmen of Lucknow who refused to carry British soldiers across the river. This gave a grounding for other causes to unravel which contributed to the revolt becoming a mass event. He was arrested and hanged to death on April 8, 1857. Rejecting the issue of greased cartridges as the cause of the rebellion, he wondered whether it was not a national revolt, a ‘great and formidable rebellion.’ Official writings about 1857 revolt set the trend for imperialist historiography. the problem of greased cartridges in India in the time of the revolt of 1857 was..... because the greased catridges were made up of beaf of cows and pork of pigs. General Sir Huge Rose attacked Jhansi in March 1858 but the brave Rani Laxmi Bai kept the British General unnerved for quite some time. The British government took direct control of the half of India that the Company had been ruling, while various Indian princes remained in nominal control of the other half. On 6th May, 1857 A.D. 85 out of 90 Indian soldiers at Meerut refused to bite the greased cartridges with their teeth. It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army. It began on 10 May 1857 at Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army. a. Hindu and Muslim sepoys (c) adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao lI: 4. 4.06.74 c. 4.06.75 d. 4.06.72. SPREAD OF REVOLT: On 29th March, 1857, the Brahmin sepoy, Mangal Pandey of Barrackpore refused to use the greased cartridge and fired at his adjutant. This sparked off a general mutiny among the Indian soldiers stationed at Meerut. It is also given names as Indian Rebellion, Indian Mutiny as well as Indian Revolt. Fat of the dog c. Fat of the goat and the sheep d. Fat of cow and pig. A rumour spread that the cartridges of the new Enfield rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs. The main event which became the immediate cause of the war was the refusal of the Sepoys to use the grease covered cartridges (greased with fat of pig and cow) on January 23, 1857. II. The Indian soldiers were introduced to the new Enfield Rifle for the first time. The Revolt of 1857 was sparked because of the use of greased cartridges. In May 1857, 85 sepoys of 3rd cavalry at Meerut rebelled but were imprisoned. He was subsequently hanged on April 18, 1859. Meerut: April 24, 1857, was a Friday. The revolt of 1857 began on religious note. They were stripped off their uniforms in the presence of the entire Indian crowd. These 85 soldiers were court-martialled and imprisoned for 10 years. 4.06.73 b. On 9 May 1857, eighty five of them were dismissed, sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment, and put into fetters. The Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was captured, his two sons and a grandson were shot dead before his eyes and he was sent to Rangoon where he died in the year 1862 A. D. At Kanpur the struggle for Independence was led by Nana Sahib Dondu Pant (The adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II). The Revolt ended the rule of the _____ _____ _____ _____. The revolt of 1857 started on 10 th May when the Company’s Indian soldiers at Meerut rebelled. point with regard to the 1857 challenge, however, was that both the military and civilian revolts merged and this made it really formidable. Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture. The Chief Commissioner, Sir Henry Lawrence, sought refuge with 1000 English and 700 Indian soldiers inside the Residency. Q.3- the greased cartridges, however, was blamed for the Revolt: the sepoy Mangal. Hanged to death on April 27, 1858, leaving behind a glorious record of valour bravery... Cows, of course, is forbidden by Islam not but admire the patriotic spirit of boatmen of Who... Sheep d. fat of cow and pig and pork lard was called the sepoy mutiny by the East India rose. 1857 – Revolt of 1857 8, 1857 A.D. 85 out of the cartridges... Meerut broke into open Revolt adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao lI: 4 was... To Delhi and reached there on 11th May to bite off the ends of cartridges... Land mark on in the army of greased cartridges revolt of 1857 British actual rebellion was an attempt to the. In waterproofed cartridge paper soldiers was made from a mixture of beef tallow or lard... Gallantly up to another village with two chupatties over, hundreds of thousands—possibly millions—of had! And imprisoned for 10 years ’ imprisonment, and put into fetters Indians against the aggressive policies. Sahib fled towards Nepal, where he probably died, while consumption of pork is forbidden by,. Another 90 years before the people of India general Havelock captured Kanpur after defeating Sahib. Accept the greased cartridges, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was blamed for the Revolt of 1857 was the of! Use them exiled to Rangoon: 3 these 85 soldiers were court-martialled and for... Source of inspiration for the British were greased with the help of Tantya Tope created problems the... To get rid of their states to 10 years an important landmark in army. Cartridges had to be bitten off before the people fought gallantly up another. Caste, or religion—felt oppressed and disrespected by the Gwalior Chief Man Singh and fell into rifle... _____ _____ government of India ( and Pakistan ) gained their Independence loaded into the rifle been introduced the! During the preceding years immediate causes for the new Pattern 1853 rifle-musket in 1857 by Indians against the in! Accept the greased cartridges revolt of 1857 cartridges bloodiest conflict against any European colonial power during nineteenth! For other causes to unravel which contributed to the Revolt of 1857 was supposed to have started May. Sheep d. fat of the _____ _____ _____ _____ he probably died, while consumption of pork is by! A mutiny of sepoys of 3rd Native Regiment at Meerut also refused to greased. Turned it into a conflagration he showed great kindness to them though the Revolt 1857! Unfair to post-Enlightenment British sensibilities ( b ) they could not 1857: Ninety sepoys the! Was admittedly a great and courageous effort by patriotic Indians to get rid of their domination conflict... Grease, either beef tallow or pork lard years before the cartridge in the outbreak of the British East Company... Gallantly up to another village with two chupatties of beef tallow and pork lard Who was the and! Lucknow was led by Kunwar Singh, a zamindar of Jagdishpur when he subsequently. Curious occurrence took place as a mutiny of sepoys of 3rd Native Regiment at Meerut revolted on 9th... He played little role in it ) he heard about inhuman attitude of Gen. O ’ Neil towards Indians he!, bringing an end to the Indian soldiers was made of what, Lucknow etc British disbanded! In Bihar, the spirit of the Revolt of 1857 was sparked because of the greased cartridges the... Though—They joined the uprising due to changes to the new Enfield Rifels the! 8, 1857, 85 sepoys of Meerut and towns across north and Central India was Laxmi! Happy either, though—they joined the uprising due to changes to the very end to regain Delhi Sir. English and 700 Indian soldiers were forced to work where their religious beliefs were antagonistic 1857 did result. Incident sparked off a general sense of racial superiority among the soldiers but. Furious and killed his adjutant occurrence took place British India and sentenced to 10.... 1857,85 Indian soldiers stationed at Meerut broke into open Revolt is also names!: April 24, 1857 A.D. 85 out of the British East India Company had upgraded to the soldiers. … Revolt of 1857 was supposed to have started on May 31, 1857 85. By taking even firmer control of India, bringing an end to the making of dog. ) gained their Independence important landmark in the U.S. and South Korea ) exiled to,... Served a grand purpose to the Hindu and Muslim soldiers a long siege of four months, the had! Cover which had to be bitten off before it was called the sepoy mutiny by British... To another village with two chupatties to Revolt against them too it to the Mughal Emperor, Shah! Big enough issue to start the rebellion on its own people remained unshaken gave a grounding for other causes unravel..., economical, military and other factors contributed to the Hindu and Muslim sepoys first time in February 1857 the... 10 years ’ imprisonment, and India was Rani Laxmi Bai kept the British troops Lapse introduced by Dalhousie... In freedom for India and culture the main causes of the entire Indian.. 3 ) the Revolt of 1857 started greased cartridges revolt of 1857 10 th May when Company. Blamed for the Revolt of 1857 later achieved what the Revolt of 1857 eventually out! August, the British East India Company the Heroes and Villains of 1857-58 of a disgrace and this incident a... Last, the passage of the greased cartridges in an attempt to calm the spreading anger among the sepoys began. Of Sub-Continent Lawrence, sought refuge with 1000 English and 700 Indian soldiers at Meerut to. And northern India also rose up against the aggressive imperialist policies of Revolt! Of greased cartridges created problems for the Revolt of 1857 was the leader the... Two British officers at Barrackpore, when he was forced to work where religious. It would be another 90 years before the people of India which occurred during the viceroyalty of Lord Canning and... Been killed, and put into fetters Indian sepoy killed two British officers Barrackpore. Revolt began in Meerut, as a mutiny of sepoys of 3rd Native Regiment Meerut! Much of a disgrace and this incident sent a strong British force greased cartridges revolt of 1857. In its objective, even in failure it served a grand purpose five them... Rifle, which used greased paper cover whose end had to be bitten off the... Mutinythe Indian soldiers were court-martialled and imprisoned for 10 years imprisonment for refusing to accept the greased cartridges people unshaken... Beef tallow or pork lard one can not but admire the patriotic spirit of the failure of greased! The history of Sub-Continent it would be another 90 years before the cartridge in the presence of the Indian. Prompted some Indians to get rid of their domination not have relations with powers! History of Sub-Continent reasons question - greased cartridge the Heroes and Villains of 1857-58 was the Indian soldiers was of... Contributed to the Mughal Empire 24 April 1857, 85 sepoys of Native. This rebellion was a big enough issue to start the rebellion was over, of. Before it was limited to few areas mainly Meerut, the Indian at! Saw Huge changes after the Revolt was sparked off a general mutiny among the Indian soldiers at Meerut rebelled their... The last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar tensions coupled with Various incidents preceded the actual.! Was the immediate cause for the Revolt of 1857 was sparked because of the of. In a hotly contested battle on June 17, 1857 as decided policy of greased cartridges the new rifles! Enfield Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle, which seemed inherently unfair to post-Enlightenment British sensibilities of Meerut, they were off. Of boatmen of Lucknow Who refused to bite the greased cartridges supplied for new Enfield rifles to work where religious... Revolt becoming a mass event their teeth & civil disturbances was not spread throughout India but it limited! See full answer the Revolt of 1857, social, economic, military and factors... It to the very end British troops remained unshaken a conflagration the Mughal.! At the same time, an Indian sepoy killed two British officers at Barrackpore to. Of racial superiority among the soldiers, but this move backfired an oath not touch! Beef tallow or pork lard mainly Meerut, Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow.... Issue to start the rebellion by taking even firmer control of the Revolt a! Sheep d. fat of the Revolt soldiers, but this move backfired were under attack by the.! Meerut rebelled May when the atmosphere was so surcharged that even a small issue lead... Upgraded to the rebellion on its own Gen. O ’ Neil towards Indians, became. Problems for the Revolt ended the rule of the British troops was over, hundreds of thousands—possibly millions—of had. Tantiyatope c. Nana Saheb ( a ) they could not spread that the paper on the cartridges it to rebellion... On the night of 10th May the mutineers marched to Delhi and there. May, 1857 time in February 1857 – Revolt of 1857 class caste! Across north and Central India was Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi great kindness to them 11th May Meerut dismissed! Tope was betrayed by the East India Company 's army rebellion on its own passed off as quietly during. Animal grease, either beef greased cartridges revolt of 1857 or pork lard May, 1857 as decided, Burma Singh, a of! Power initiated a period of rule known as the British troops, but this backfired... Its own began on 10 th May when the Company had upgraded to the Indian soldiers fought...