Metolachlor is normally a liquid formulation and the use … Pesticide compounds that may undergo direct photolysis in the hydrologic system are those for which the wavelengths required for bond breakage fall within the range of the solar spectrum (e.g., Zepp et al., 1975). Metolachlor, a widely used herbicide, is classified as a Group C carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency based on increased liver neoplasms in female rats. Atrazine, ); neither pesticide was registered for home use at the time of collection. Bridging studies indicate that the metolachlor toxicology database can be used to assess toxicity for S-metolachlor, and vice versa. The common name metolachlor is in general use. The exposure level for GW indicates that 7.4% of the samples exceed the threshold value of either 0.1 µg L–1 per substance or 0.5 µg L–1 for the sum of all substances detected. Lower concentrations (0.056–0.56 mmol/L) of the herbicide atrazine fostered a shift in algal community, with more sensitive species disappearing and tolerant species dominating the community structure. In fact, the historical use of these resources has been only for irrigation. The adsorption of organic cations on clay minerals modifies the nature of the clay mineral surface, transforming it from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Metolachlor exisits as the S- and R- entantiomers. Under field conditions, isoproturon treated wheat grain yield reduced by 65% compared to the untreated plant (Chhokar and Malik, 2002). These metabolites are not inconsistent with the suggested metabolic pathways. Figure 32.1. If the active ingredient is listed as S- metolachlor, then the product primarily contains the active isomer used in Dual II Magnum. These associations suggest that these pesticides and herbicides may contribute to a reduction in semen quality for men in the mid-Missouri region (Swan, 2003). CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) registry number. A vegetative filter strip reduced losses of metribuzin and metolachlor by more than 85% (Webster and Shaw, 1996). Yield and fruit quality were evaluated by observing average weight (g) of fruits with and without crown, fruit lengths, and diameters, and pH and soluble solids determination of pulp (Maia et al., 2012). Several studies have reported higher concentrations of pesticide residues in household dust samples in agricultural worker homes compared to nonagricultural worker homes, suggesting that pesticides are being brought into homes on workers’ bodies, clothing, and shoes. Mineralization rates of ring-labeled atrazine in both rhizosphere and nonvegetated soils were quite high (> 47% of the initial 14C applied after 36 days) compared to literature values. (2005) reviewed studies investigating the effectiveness of vegetative filter strips on reducing herbicide runoff and methods of evaluating herbicide retention. Four studies reviewed by authors examined differences in level of pesticides in house dust by household characteristics and home practices. Lu et al. The structural formulae of selected ones are given as below. This classification was based on a study that detected increased liver tumors in female rats and a study that replicated these findings (EPA, 1995a). Ingestion: Abdominal cramps. The first triazine herbicide, atrazine, was discovered by J.R. Geigy, Ltd., in Switzerland (LeBaron et al., 2008). From Syngenta Crop Protection (2005). Other commonly used herbicides in the United States to kill unwanted vegetation include pendimethalin, trifluralin, alachlor, propanil, dimethenamid, mancozeb, and dicamba (Kiely et al., 2004). This research supports the use of rhizosphere microorganisms associated with herbicide-resistant plants to enhance microbial degradation of atrazine in soil at contaminated sites. In rats, one of these compounds, the herbicide, Indicators for Monitoring Aquatic Ecosystem, Lawrence et al., 2001; Margoum et al., 2007, Eullaffroy and Vernet, 2003; Nyström et al., 1999, Lockert et al., 2006; Nyström et al., 1999, Guasch et al., 2003, 1998, 1997; Guasch and Sabater, 1998. Metolachlor, a widely used herbicide, is classified as a Group C carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency based on increased liver neoplasms in female rats. Agricultural uses of glyphosate include maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet acres (Gianessi, 2005). However, Bonnet et al. reported the presence of phosmet and azinphos-methyl in mean concentrations of 0.16 and 0.30 μg g−1, respectively, in a study that sampled 26 homes. Additional triazine herbicides presented in several water-quality studies by the USGS include cyanazine, introduced on the market in 1972 and voluntarily withdrawn from the market by the manufacturer in 2000 (Scribner et al., 2005; Thurman and Scribner, 2008); prometryn (Coupe et al., 1998); and simazine (Coupe et al., 2005). These data also confirm the estimation carried out with modelling and vulnerability assessment of the soil. These are relatively mobile and persistent herbicides, especially metolachlor (Table 1). Elongases are present in bacteria, fungi, and prokaryote cells, but they are a diverse family of enzymes with many different substrates and functions. When isoproturon and S-metolachlor, two major herbicides used in French agriculture, were tested on periphytic biofilm at low (5 μg/L) and high (30 μg/L) concentrations with different recovery periods, complete decreases in chlorophyll a concentration and live cell density were observed. Metolachlor applications for tobacco are normally applied prior to transplanting and shallowly incorporated in the top 2.5 to 5 cm of soil, but may also be applied pretransplant without incorporation. The organoclay formulations exhibited a significant reduction in leaching, which implied maintaining high and relatively enhanced herbicidal activity in the topsoil but little activity at greater soil depths. The label directions on several pesticide products now include BMPs.