machine learning: Also referred to as deep learning, machine learning is a type of artificial intelligence algorithm that can learn rules or identify diagnostic criteria from immense data sets of brain imaging or genetic information. For example, neurons and other brain cells metabolize glucose, a blood sugar, to derive energy for transmitting nerve impulses. Lou Gehrig’s disease: see amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). stress: Physical, emotional, and mental factors that result in bodily or psychological tension. Classes. For example, amyloid plaques—as detected on amyloid PET scans—are a biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease. striatum: A small group of subcortical structures, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, located in the midbrain. This is how the brain’s connections change in response to experience. Parkinson’s disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, slowed movement, and speech changes due to the death of dopamine neurons located in the substantia nigra. dominant gene: A gene that almost always results in a specific physical characteristic, for example a disease, even though the patient’s genome possesses only one copy. A nearby blast or explosion, as may occur in combat, emits shock waves that can also cause a TBI. Clayman C, ed. in silico: An experimental method to study brain or neural function using computer modeling or computer simulation. corpus callosum: The collection of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. gene mapping: Determining the relative positions of genes on a chromosome and the distance between them. brain-computer interface: A device or program that permits direct or indirect collaboration between the brain and a computer system. Learn terms science brain 1 with free interactive flashcards. However, in cases of brain disorders or disease, this natural process can be “hijacked,” resulting in the unnecessary death of crucial neurons. Smaller groupings (oligomers) of Aβ seem more toxic to brain cells and are thought by many researchers to play an important role in the Alzheimer’s disease process. Scientists estimate that there are approximately 86 billion neurons in the human brain. rod: A type of photoreceptor, usually found on the outer edges of the retina, that helps facilitate peripheral vision. enzyme: A protein that facilitates a biochemical reaction. This “adult neurogenesis” appears to be vital for normal learning and memory, and may help protect the brain against stress and depression. Sometimes referred to as the cerebral cortex. cognitive neuroscience: The field of study that investigates the biological processes in the brain that underlie attention, memory, and other facets of cognition. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Deepen your well-being practices and develop techniques to teach others with a prestigious Chopra certification. occipital lobe: A part of the brain’s cerebrum, located at the rear of the brain, above the cerebellum. Rapid and widespread neurogenesis obviously occurs in the fetal brain in humans and other animals, but neuroscientists long believed that neurogenesis essentially does not occur in the adult human brain. protein folding: The process by which the chain of amino acids that make up a protein assumes its functional shape. glioma: A tumor that arises from the brain’s glial tissue. Memory about motor skills and perceptual strategies is known as implicit or procedural memory and involves the cerebellum, the amygdala, and specific pathways related to the particular skill (e.g., riding a bicycle would involve the motor cortex). Opioid receptors are involved in numerous functions, including pain control, mood, digestion, and breathing. obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): A form of anxiety disorder characterized by unreasonable thoughts, or obsessions, which result in compulsive, repetitive behaviors. pain receptors: Specialized nerve fibers in the skin and on the surfaces of internal organs, which detect painful stimuli and send signals to the brain. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, 24th Edition. Users Options. Login; Try a Live Demo; SCI-BR A IN Identify experts in the blink of an eye. rehabilitation: The process by which people can repair, recover, or compensate for functional abilities after sustaining damage to the nervous system. Large, abnormal clumps of this protein form the amyloid plaques that are a physiological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. While people may commonly equate brain tumors with cancer, many tumors are benign—but their location in the brain can still interfere with normal brain function. Alzheimer’s disease is one form of dementia. The chemicals attach themselves to the receptors, in lock-and-key fashion, to activate the receiving cell structure. premotor cortex: The area of the cerebrum located between the prefrontal cortex and the motor cortex, in the frontal lobe. Organisms could not function if they had no enzymes. psychology: An academic or scientific field of study concerned with the behavior of humans and animals and related mental processes. Vanessa Chan, Claude Alain In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 13 November 2020 The sugar is ribose, not deoxyribose, hence RNA. The condition can be transient, marking a stage in recovery, or permanent. Grow your practice. mutation: A permanent structural alteration to DNA that modifies its previous nucleotide sequence. Toggle navigation SCI-BR A IN. Narcotic drugs, such as morphine, imitate the actions of the body’s natural endorphins. frontal lobe: The front of the brain’s cerebrum, beneath the forehead. Brain imaging techniques such as fMRI can be used to measure the residual activity that occurs in this state. recessive: A genetic trait or disease that appears only in patients who have received two copies of a mutant gene, one from each parent. peripheral nervous system: The nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Learn more. Memory about people, places, and things that one has experienced directly or otherwise learned about is referred to as explicit or declarative memory and is highly dependent upon the hippocampus and temporal lobe. white matter: Brain or spinal cord tissue consisting primarily of myelin-covered axons that extend from nerve cell bodies in the gray matter of the central nervous system. While amyloid plaques have long been considered markers of Alzheimer’s, they are also found to some extent in many cognitively normal elderly people. neuroethics: An interdisciplinary field of study that addresses the ethical implications of our increased ability to understand and change the brain. connectome: A detailed map of the myriad neural connections (also called fiber tracts) that make up the brain and nervous system. resting state: The state of the brain when it is not consciously engaged in an explicit task. By continuing to use this site, you agree that you are OK with it. Blazing a Genetic Trail, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, hhmi.org (1991). post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A mental disorder that develops in response to a traumatic event such as combat, sexual assault, or abuse. If you do not agree to abide by all of the provisions contained in these Terms, you must not use or access the Site. Fun Fact: There are about 100 billion neurons in the head’s brain. cell body: Also known as the soma, this central part of the neuron contains the nucleus of the neuron. Hormones act on receptors in other parts of the body to influence body functions or behavior. It lies primarily in the occipital lobe at the rear of the brain and is connected to the eyes by the optic nerves. The first prions described were hardy aggregates of PrP, the prion protein. somatosensory cortex: Located in the parietal lobe, this region of the brain processes touch, pressure, and pain information. Dorling Kindersley; New York (1995). This sets off a chain reaction of similar voltage changes along the cell’s axon to the synapse, where it causes the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. blind spot. adrenaline: Also called epinephrine, this hormone is secreted by the adrenal glands in response to stress and other challenges to the body. spinal cord: The “other half” of the central nervous system (with the brain). Sign up for self-paced courses designed to deliver balance and health. artificial intelligence (AI): computer programs or systems designed to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, including problem-solving, learning, and decision-making behaviors. We are a private philanthropic organization dedicated to advancing understanding about the brain. long term potentiation (LTP): The persistent strengthening of a synapse with increased use, thought to underlie learning and memory. ultrasound: An imaging technique that uses sound waves to visualize the inside of the body. Many people with hearing loss experience some degree of balance difficulties, since the vestibular (or balance) system and the auditory (or hearing) systems are so closely related. brain science synonyms, brain science pronunciation, brain science translation, English dictionary definition of brain science. Take well-being with you wherever you go with the Chopra app. olfactory: Pertaining to the sense of smell. The two main types are direct current stimulation (tDCS) and alternating current stimulation (tACS). To clarify the common confusion and demystify the befuddling details, here are a half a dozen terms with explanations and descriptions that I hope will not only be educational, but also interesting and empowering. Huntington’s disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that causes progressive death of neurons in the brain, resulting in severe movement and cognitive problems. A collection of basic bodily cells, including neurons, which are interconnected via synaptic linkages in a spider-web-like fashion. Neurodevelopmental disorders include schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. persistent vegetative state: A disorder of consciousness, often following severe brain trauma, in which an individual has not even minimal conscious awareness. For purposes of these Terms, Boston Scientific Corporation is referred to as BSC, us, we, etc. Neural integration can be viewed as the basis of health as it permits harmony to develop, enabling the coordination and balance of the nervous system as a whole. For example, after a stroke, many individuals must learn how to walk or talk again. Browse 500 sets of terms system brain science flashcards. reward/reinforcement brain network: Also known as the mesolimbic circuit, this important network of brain regions stretching from the brain stem to the frontal lobes is implicated in risk and reward processing, as well as learning. See more. substantia nigra: This small region in the midbrain is part of the brain’s reward system. The Human Body: An Illustrated Guide to Its Structure, Function, and Disorders. biomarkers: A measurable physiological indicator of a biological state or condition. Research suggests the cerebellum may also play a role, along with the cerebrum, in some emotional and cognitive processes. DNA has a double-helix structure—two intertwined strands resembling a spiraling ladder. Brain Scientific's MemoryMD subsidiary has two FDA - cleared clinical-grade devices in the market, NeuroEEG™and NeuroCap™. nerve growth factor: Also referred to as a neurotrophic factor, this special protein helps regulate the growth and survival of nerve cells. allele: One of two or more varying forms of a gene due to genetic mutation. Brain indices associated with semantic cues prior to and after a word in noise T.M. Terms of Service. Ligands can be added to a PET scan to detect pathological entities such as amyloid or tau deposits. plasticity: In neuroscience, refers to the brain’s capacity to change and adapt in response to developmental forces, learning processes, injury, or aging. addiction: Now commonly called substance use disorder, addiction is a mental health condition where a person’s progressive and chronic use of drugs or alcohol leads to issues with personal relationships, the ability to work, and one’s physical health. 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