This was not unexpected since, in the absence of deployments, the NG and RES are more reflective of the rates observed in the American civilian population. Correspondence. Tests for other drugs are done at random on different schedules for each lab. Federal agencies must test each specimen for marijuana and cocaine, and may test each specimen for opiates, amphetamines, and phencyclidine. All specimens are screened for THC, COC, 6-AM, and the amphetamine drug class, whereas the other drugs are pulsed tested at a minimum of 20% of specimens submitted. The d-METH drug positive rates have been consistently much lower than the d-AMP rates and have been steadily decreasing. To support this mission, the Army currently operates two of the six DoD Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratories (FTDTL). A thorough analysis of this MRO data is ongoing and will be published in the future. Since heroin and its metabolite 6-AM have short half-lives (approximately 6 minutes and 0.5 hour, respectively), it is likely that many other soldiers are abusing heroin and not being identified.13,14 Heroin has been rated the most addictive and harmful of commonly abused drugs.15 The resurgence of heroin abuse in the Army reflects heroin's recent reemergence in American society. But not all samples are tested for all of these drugs. A far more common metabolic example is the cytochrome P-450 catalyzed demethylation of several drugs in the DoD test panel. Testing for the benzodiazepine drug class started in November 2012 with the conformational analysis of five different drugs or drug metabolites. One is … What You Need to Know About Marijuana and Employment Drug Testing, Many Ways to Get Discharged From the Military. The AD rate of OXCOD positives has also steadily increased from 0.67% in FY06 to the present high of 0.91% (Fig. The Department of Defense (DoD) has conducted over 30 years of urinalysis testing for drugs of abuse. Specimens reported as positive by FTDTLs must be positive in all 3 assays; these include the initial screen, rescreen, and GC/MS confirmation. Historically, THC has been the drug with the highest positive rate in the Army and it is the most commonly abused illegal drug in the United States.8,9 This Army trend was not observed from FY06 onward when the pain medications OXCOD and OXMOR were tested at the FTDTLs (Table II). Before the start of testing for OXCOD and OXMOR in FY06, the drug that consistently had the second highest positive rate was COC. The program is governed by AR 600-85, MEDCOM Reg 40-51, ALARACT 062/2011, DA Pam 600-85, and the Employee Assistance Program (EAP). Objective: To examine the overall and drug-specific positive rates of Army urinalysis specimens tested from fiscal year 2001 (FY01) through FY11. The Army carries out random, compulsory drugs testing, and you can expect to be tested while you're in training. 1Tripler Army Medical Center Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratory, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. In FY11, the AD d-METH positive rate was less than 10% of that observed for d-AMP. The commander cannot select a particular individual to take a random test it must be a group. Under this procedure, members do not have to grant consent. Over these 11 years, 1.06% of Army specimens were positive for one or more drugs in the DoD testing panel. The military’s current drug test of choice is urinalysis. Peter L. Platteborze, MS USA, Donald J. Kippenberger, PhD, Thomas M. Martin, MS USA, Drug Positive Rates for the Army, Army Reserve, and Army National Guard From Fiscal Year 2001 through 2011, Military Medicine, Volume 178, Issue 10, October 2013, Pages 1078–1084, https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-13-00193. Each member of the armed forces undergoes at least one random drug test per year (in the Navy this is upped to 4 a month and in the Reserves once every two years and equals roughly 600,000 tests each month). If a member refuses to grant consent, and if the commander does not have enough evidence to warrant a probable-cause search warrant, the commander may order the member to give a urine sample anyway. However, the test has to be random. From marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamine, designed amphetamines such as MDMA (also known as Molly or Ecstasy), and MDA (also known as Adam), including heroin, codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, and a number of synthetic cannabinoids (also known as spice) and benzodiazepine sedatives. In this 11-year retrospective study, Army drug positive rates were determined from the start of FY01 through the end of FY11. These results are significant as historically the Army's highest FTDTL drug positive rates involved THC and COC abuse.5,6 However, prescription drug use was not as prevalent in FY00 or earlier. Peak THC abuse rates for the AD occurred in FY02 and surged high again in FY09 before dramatically decreasing. Bruins MR, Okano CK, Lyons TP, Lukey BJ, Little JS, Lukey BJ, Shimomura ET, Fuhrmann LS, United States Army Medical Command Regulation 40-51, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Institute of Medicine September 2012 Report, Devine JW, Trice S, Spridgen SL, Bacon TA, Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Everybody takes this series of five tests. Although the drug positive rate for heroin remains low, the number of positives has increased dramatically since FY05. In FY01, the NG had similarly high rejection rates but through expanded training and improved quality control the issue was resolved. It is noteworthy that the RES positive rate for OXCOD tripled from FY06 to FY11. This is consistent with a 2006 study that showed an MDMA positive rate below 0.01% in DoD specimens collected at military entrance processing stations.12 In sum, since these rates are so low the DoD should consider ending the requirement that all specimens be screened for MDMA or to discontinue its testing at the FTDTLs. The Army's average positive rate for marijuana from FY01 to FY11 was 0.79%, and the cocaine rate was 0.26%. Members do not have the right to refuse a random test. Dr Marisol S. Castaneto, Commander, Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratory, 1 Jarrett White Road (MCHK‐FT) Tripler Army Medical Center, HI 96859–5000, USA. In addition, the Fort Meade FTDTL conducts testing of all DoD civilian specimens4 by maintaining certification in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration National Laboratory Certification Program. Urgent Care Hawaii - Pearl City. Managing drug test results and medical reviews † 4–14, page 34 Inspections † 4–15, page 36 The DoD has a contract with the University of California Los Angeles to conduct steroid testing of SM specimens. Medical Services Department of Defense (DoD) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing Program and Drug and Alcohol Testing (DAT) Program . The drug positive rate peaked in FY08 for the AD, FY10 for the RES, and FY07 for the NG. The AD ecstasy (i.e., MDMA) positive rate has decreased seven-fold from its high in FY06 to the FY11 rate of 0.01% (data not shown). Commanders can request samples be tested for steroids. In FY11, the total number of Army specimens tested was 2,182,978 with 74.50% submitted by the AD, 17.01% from the NG, and 8.49% from the RES. That is those specimens at such a high concentration the drug can carry over to a subsequent specimen and cause a misreading. If a member tests positive for a prescription drug, the first step is for the command to conduct a medical review for the member's medical … Although the Army is expected to draw down over the next 3 to 5 years, the recently revised Army Regulation 600-85 mandates each soldier will be tested at least once per FY,3 an increase likely to sustain a high workload for the foreseeable future. These results can be used in court marshall and in the event of an involuntary discharge. Based upon how heroin abusers clearly endanger the force, the DoD might consider lowering the 6-AM cutoffs to detect more abusers. In FY11, there were only seven PCP positive results in over 468,000 Army specimens tested. Initial data on these drugs indicate a high positive rate, which reflects hydrocodone being the second highest DoD-prescribed medication in FY11. All branches of the military require drug tests. BBB Rating: … Those samples that rescreen positive are tested a third time via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Conceivably, AD soldiers may be ingesting other drugs of abuse that generate a similar high to THC that the FTDTLs are not testing. The RES need to improve their internal quality control before sample submission as they are putting an unnecessary burden upon the Army FTDTLs. In this case, the samples are sent to the Olympic testing laboratory at the University of California at Los Angeles. Army has a zero tolerance of drug abuse and constantly performs random drugs tests to ensure that all members of the Armed services are following this rule. This represents a 35.82% increase for the AD, a similar trend was observed with the NG. Slightly lower decreases in COC rates were observed for the NG and RES during this timeframe. Every sample gets tested for marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamines, including ecstasy. They are … Specimens are initially screened by immunoassay for the presence of certain drug classes using high throughput automated chemistry analyzers. I have successfully defended wrongful use of prescription drug cases when members of the military test positive for prescription on a random urinalysis. And it’s exactly what it sounds like: A test on your urine. This positive rate is significantly less than that observed from FY97 to FY00, where the AD rate was 0.51%.5 Inversely, the NG-positive THC rate from FY97 to FY00 was 0.51%, whereas the FY11 NG rate was over three-fold higher. medical review officers (MROs) in determining if a medical explanation exists for a positive urinalysis drug testing result. The initial screening of urinalysis specimens uses Food and Drug Administration–approved immunoassays. DISTRIBUTION: Unlimited. FOR THE COMMANDER: J. Cunningham. The British Army will not tolerate drugs or drug use, we are also at full manning so competition to get in will be high, so if it is a 50/50 between you and someone who isn't a drug … (6) Drug or alcohol test results, if the Soldier voluntarily submits to a DOD or Army rehabilitation program before the Soldier has received an order to submit for a lawful drug or alcohol test. The AD positive rate increased nearly five-fold, whereas the NG and RES exhibited an over three-fold increase. If a commander does not have probable cause, the commander can ask the member for "consent to search." This is achievable. The chain-of-custody requirement continues in the lab as well. This increased workload is not surprising since the number of Army personnel expanded to support the Global War on Terrorism starting in FY02. Of a total of 2,609 drugs identified in this FY11 report, d-AMP was the 63rd most prescribed medication. Essentially for a drug positive result to be released to its originating unit, the sample must have tested positive in a minimum of three different laboratory assays. Not I used the term "wrongful." The press and UK parliament keep a close eye on the results of the British Army’s compulsory drug testing of military personnel. For a physical health assessment (?) The signs of drug … The last three represent a class of multiple drugs that are screened together but confirmed separately. DoD labs are equipped to test for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, LSD, opiates (including morphine and heroin), barbiturates and PCP. Basically, a commander can order that either all or a random selected sample of his/her unit be tested, at any time. From FY01 to FY11, the Army's average COC rate was 0.26%. and hydromorphone (i.e., Dilaudid) began in May 2012. In this case, the report that goes back to the commander says negative. Most importantly, there appears to be a significant number of soldiers being prescribed OXCOD to treat chronic pain and d-AMP (i.e., Adderall) for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. This downward trend was not observed with the NG or RES, instead their THC positive rates increased with both peaking in FY10. From FY01 through FY11, overall drug positive rates were consistently much higher in the NG and RES than in the AD. Results are reported as a percentage to the hundredths. The AD positive rate for COC decreased three-fold from its high in FY06 to the FY11 rate. From FY06 to FY11, the average positive rate was 0.74% for OXCOD and 0.26% for d-AMP. 5). Unlike the AD, the NG and RES have consistently had low MDMA positive rates at or below 0.01%. Deputy Commander/Chief of Staff. This is a decrease from FY97 to FY00 when there was a reported COC positive rate of 0.19% for AD and 0.51% in the NG.5 Closer analysis of our data show significant decreases from FY08 to FY11, which coincides with the emergence of bath salts in the United States; these drugs produce a COC-like euphoria. 2Naval Criminal Investigative Service, Hawaii Field Office, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Medical testing This is a medical test that a member undertakes in regards to complying with the stipulated medical requirements and may include a urine analysis for illegal and controlled drugs. Those selected must be truly "random." 1. How the Air Force Deals with Substance Abuse. This includes the correct analysis of both open and blind quality control specimens for each drug being assayed. Heroin is readily available on the street and costs less than the diverted semisynthetic opiates OXCOD and HYCOD. Based upon the expanded DoD drug test panel in FY13, the low MDMA positive rates merit comment. The positive rate for d-AMP has steadily increased from FY06 (Fig. The FY11 drug positive rates in decreasing order were oxymorphone > oxycodone > marijuana > d-amphetamine > codeine > cocaine > morphine > d-methamphetamine > methylenedioxymethamphetamine > heroin > methylenedioxyamphetamine > phencyclidine. (SMA) 11-4658, Substance Use Disorders in the U.S. Armed Forces, Trends in prescription drug utilization and spending for the Department of Defense, 2002–2007, Prevalence of use study for amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine in military entrance processing stations specimens, American Association of Clinical Chemistry Press, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse. Testing for the semisynthetic opiates hydrocodone (i.e., Vicodin, Norco, Lortab, etc.) A 1964 issue of Medical News reported that 9 out of 10 prisoners at Holmesburg Prison were medical test subjects. One is located at Tripler Army Medical Center, Hawaii, a… The COC positive rates were lower than anticipated. Voluntary submission includes Soldiers communicating to a member of their chain of command that they desire to be entered into a rehabilitation program. In FY11, the DoD drug testing panel consisted of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9 carboxylic acid, a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the major psychoactive component in marijuana), benzoylecgonine (a primary urinary metabolite of cocaine [COC]), 6-monoacetlymorphine (6-AM, a heroin metabolite), phencyclidine (PCP), amphetamines, opiates, and oxycodone. But not all samples are tested for all of these drugs. The component rates were 0.84%, 1.53%, and 1.94% for the active duty, Reserve, and National Guard, respectively. The volatile extracts produced are then analyzed by GC/MS using the selected ion-monitoring mode. This Regulation is approved for public release. October 27, 2011 - The Director, Drug Testing and Program Policy approved a request from the Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratory (FTDTL) to conduct live testing of service member urinalysis specimens utilizing … The drug test is done without warning and typically involves a urine test. These include COD to MOR, d-METH to d-AMP, MDMA to MDA, and OXCOD into OXMOR. Oxycodone drug class testing began in FY06, reflecting the general rise of pain medication abuse. Over- the-counter cold medications and dietary supplements might cause a screening test to come up positive, but that the more specific secondary testing would positively identify the medication. The Army Medical Command mandates that all drug positives in the opiates, steroids, oxycodone, and amphetamine drug classes be assessed by a medical review officer (MRO) before being released to the unit.7 If the soldier's medical record contains a prescription that could cause the positive urinalysis result, then the MRO documents an authorized use and the positive result will not be released to the unit. all urinalysis specimens collected in iraq, afghanistan and kuwait will be mailed directly to the ftdtl at triper army medical center (tamc) for testing. Medical Testing. This is testing which is accomplished in compliance with any medical requirements such as entry into the military (MEPS). 9. shipping. In other words, the member can be discharged, but what kind of discharge he/she receives (honorable, general, other-than-honorable) depends upon his/her military record (WITHOUT using the urinalysis results). This is where a commander orders a random test on all or a particular unit. Those that test positive for the presence of drugs at this point undergo the same screen once again. However, commanders cannot order specific individuals to take a "random" test. Urinalysis tests given to new recruits falls under this category. A urine drug screen, or urine drug test, can detect the presence of drugs in a person’s system. In FY11, there were a total of 232 heroin positives in the Army with 174 from the AD, 36 from the NG, and 22 from the RES. This program not only serves as a vital deterrent to prevent soldiers from abusing drugs but also identifies drug abusers so their command can take appropriate corrective action. That month, federal legislation was enacted that classified nearly all synthetic cannabinoids as Schedule 1 drugs and hence illegal in nature. Even if a particular drug is detected, if the level is below a certain threshold, the test result is reported back to the commander as negative. Methods: We analyzed annual Army Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratory results from FY01 to FY11. This is where potential soldiers, sailors, Marines, airmen, and other would-be members of the military are evaluated. The FY11 drug positive rates were appreciably lower than these peak levels; the AD had decreased by 13.83%, the RES by 6.60%, and the NG by 8.06%. The Army's OXMOR positive rates are higher still (data not shown); however, the majority of these positive results are due to the metabolism of OXCOD. There is always a written record of who those individuals are. Although the FY11 heroin positive rate is low (0.01%), the number of positives has increased dramatically since FY05 when 100% testing for 6-AM was mandated by the DoD. If the member grants consent, the results of the urinalysis may be used in court-martials, article 15s, and involuntary discharges to include service characterization. These synthetic forms of marijuana were readily purchased online as well as at gas stations, and the FTDTLs did not test for their presence. Medical Testing This accounts for nearly 80% of the heroin positives in the DoD and represents a more than a seven-fold increase in the number of positives since FY05. To support this mission, the Army currently operates two of the six DoD Forensic Toxicology Drug Testing Laboratories (FTDTL). When Do Companies Drug Test Applicants and Employees? In FY11, the total number of Army urinalysis specimens tested was 2,182,978 with 74.50% submitted by the AD, 17.01 % from the NG ,and 8.49% from the RES. Although a certain low level of specimens will fail to meet forensic acceptability standards and not be tested at the FTDTLs, it is disappointing that the RES rejection rate from FY01-11 was nearly four-fold higher than the AD and NG. There has been a significant progressive decrease in the Army's COC positive rate from FY06 to FY11 (Fig. This video I break down the common sense of military drug test to if it's a concern do not get tested. This program was established to primarily deter and secondarily detect drug abuse in service members (SM).1,–3 Deterring the use of illegal drugs is essential to maintain a safe, effective, and ready U.S. Armed Forces. In order for a soldier's prescription to be authorized per Army Medical Command Regulation 40-51, it must have been filled within 6 months from the date the urinalysis specimen was collected.7. Little et al6 reported a 4.85% THC positive rate from AD urines collected in 1985 from the European theatre. Members do not have the right to refuse random testing. Urine specimens with a drug concentration at or above the DoD-established screening cutoffs (Table I) are rescreened at the same cutoff to specifically verify the presence of that specific drug or drug metabolite. Military applicants are currently tested for more than 26 drugs. Soldiers are drug tested very often. First, individuals initial the label on their own bottles. Again, results of urinalysis tests obtained through search authorizations can be used in courts-martial, article 15,  and involuntary discharges, including service characterization. This test can identify specific substances within the urine samples. If a commander has probable cause that a person is under the influence of drugs, the commander can request a search authorization from the Installation Commander, who is authorized to issue "military search warrants" after consultation with the JAG. 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