Photo Source: 123RF.com. A hormone manufactured by the adrenal cortex. It is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that communicate in trillions of connections called synapses. Brain Definition. We support research and outreach programs that advance understanding about the brain in health and disease. A neurochemical that inhibits wakefulness, serving the purpose of slowing down cellular activity and diminishing arousal. The grid looks like graph paper with a dot in the center. One of the four subdivisions of the cerebral cortex. A sex hormone produced primarily in the testes but also in lower amounts in the adrenal cortex and ovaries. The dendrite is the primary site for receiving and integrating information from other neurons. A change in a neuron’s membrane potential in which the cytoplasm becomes more positively charged. The elimination of weak or non-functioning synapses to fine-tune neural circuitry. A branch of the autonomic nervous system responsible for mobilizing the body's energy and resources during times of stress and arousal. A state of heightened arousal characterized by intense worry. Pronunciation /brān/ /breɪn/ See synonyms for brain. Small cylindrical organelles inside cells that provide energy for the cell by converting sugar and oxygen into special energy molecules, called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The brain also controls all major body functions. A hormone produced in the pineal gland that regulates responses to light-dark cycles and induces sleep at night. The ability of the brain to modify its neural connections to adapt to challenges in the environment. Neurotransmitters produced in the brain that generate cellular and behavioral effects like those of morphine. The complex human brain controls who we are: how we think, feel, and act. Talking TBI: A Glossary of Formal and Informal Terms Used to Describe TBI Treatment, Professionals, and More. This glossary provides information and definitions of medical terms associated with brain injury and rehabilitation to help you or your family. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. The striatum is a part of the basal ganglia and is involved in reward processing. The brain stem controls many automatic and motor functions. A nerve ending, cell, or group of cells specialized to sense or receive light. brain. Parkinson’s disease destroys the dopamine-producing neurons in this region. Small proteins in the nervous system that are necessary for the development, function, and survival of specific groups of neurons. A type of declarative memory consisting primarily of memory of personal experiences. abducens nerve: sixth cranial nerve; responsible for contraction of one of the extraocular muscles. A drug that relieves pain without causing a loss of consciousness. A hormone released by the adrenal medulla and specialized sites in the brain. Abnormalities in the second circuit have been implicated in schizophrenia. A technique that uses magnetic fields to create a high-quality, three-dimensional image of organs and structures inside the body. The occipital lobe plays a role in processing visual information. Norepinephrine is involved in arousal and sleep regulation, mood, and blood pressure. acervulus L. = sand, gritty; brain sand (cf. A group of structures deep within the brain involved in motivation and emotion. A worldwide celebration of the brain that brings together scientists, families, schools, and communities during the third week in March. The temporal lobe functions in auditory perception, speech, and complex visual perceptions. A treelike extension of the neuron cell body. Portions of the brain that are gray in color because they are composed mainly of neural cell bodies, rather than myelinated nerve fibers, which are white. A critical neurotransmitter that controls functions such as memory, attention, sleep, heart rate, and muscular activity. Published: acetylcholine an ester of choline found in many tissue, synapses & neuromuscular junctions, where it is a neural transmitter. A type of glial cell in the central nervous system that forms myelin. A psychiatric disorder characterized by sadness, hopelessness, pessimism, loss of interest in life, reduced emotional well­being, and abnormalities in sleep, appetite, and energy level. SSRIs are used to treat depression and other disorders. The more brain activity, the more vivid the picture that is created. Amygdala Part of the limbic system always alert to threats. Sensory receptors in the cochlea that convert mechanical vibrations to electrical signals; they in turn excite the 30,000 fibers of the auditory nerve that carry the signals to the brainstem. A decline in cognitive ability that interferes with day-to-day functioning. Unspecialized cells that renew themselves for long periods through cell division. An endocrine organ closely linked with the hypothalamus. Brain, the mass of nerve tissue in the anterior end of an organism. A technique that can quantitatively measure the strength of activity in various regions of the brain at millisecond resolution. It functions as a primary receiver, organizer, and distributor of information for the body. In humans, the pituitary gland is composed of two lobes and secretes several different hormones that regulate the activity of other endocrine organs throughout the body. Dorsal: directional term that refers to the back. The major route by which the forebrain sends information to and receives information from the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Glossary of terms. A small, pitted area in the center of the retina where visual acuity is highest, due to a high density of cones. A primary receptor cell for vision located in the retina. Translate brain into Spanish. amygdala: Part of the brain involved in memory and emotion. When you or someone you know sustains a traumatic brain … Twelve pairs of nerves that can be seen on the bottom surface of the brain. Dictionary.com is the world’s leading online source for English definitions, synonyms, word origins and etymologies, audio pronunciations, example sentences, slang phrases, idioms, word games, legal and medical terms, Word of the Day and more. Some of these nerves transmit sensory information; some control the movement of face, head, and neck muscles; others transmit information to internal organs to regulate functions such as blood pressure and heart rate. A technology used to record electrical activity of the human brain in response to a variety of stimuli and activities. The loss of muscle function in all or part of the body, usually due to nerve damage. A movement disorder caused by the death of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, located in the midbrain. A change in a neuron’s membrane potential in which the cytoplasm becomes more negatively charged and therefore less likely to fire an action potential. In the final stages, individuals are incapable of self-care and may be bedridden. Compact fatty material that surrounds and insulates the axons of some neurons and accelerates the transmission of electrical signals. A block in the brain's blood supply. Glossary Terms About Traumatic Brain Injury. A small endocrine gland in the brain that produces melatonin. An anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable, recurring thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that attempt to mitigate the obsessions. Deficits of dopamine in the motor circuit are associated with Parkinson's disease. Computers then build three-dimensional images of changes in blood flow based on the amount of radiation emitted in different brain regions. The parietal lobe plays a role in sensory processes, attention, and language. regulates and guides the other parts of the nervous system. Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin, increasing its availability in the synapse. Definition of brain in English: brain. It connects the lamina with the vertebral body. The brainstem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla, and it controls, among other things, respiration and the regulation of heart rhythms. Patients, friends, and family members often find themselves thrust into this new language without warning, and soon learn that education is their first priority. These structures include the caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. CAUDATE NUCLEUS - Part of the basal ganglia, which are brain cells that lie deep in the brain. These structures include the caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. © 2020 The Dana Foundation. It includes memory of facts (semantic memory) and memory of personal experiences (episodic memory). These cookies do not store any personal information. A monoamine neurotransmitter believed to play many roles, including but not limited to temperature regulation, sensory perception, and the onset of sleep. spinal cord. Some of the actions of glucocorticoids help to mediate the stress response, while other, slower actions counteract the primary response to stress and help to re-establish homeostasis. A region in the temporal lobe responsible for comprehension of language. amylase: An enzyme secreted by the pancreas that breaks starch into sugar. Glial cells in the central nervous system that function as resident immune cells. A process by which released neurotransmitters are absorbed for later reuse. The fiber-like extension of a neuron by which it sends information to target cells. Proteins embedded in the postsynaptic cell membrane that bind neurotransmitters to alter the cell’s excitability. Programmed cell death induced by specialized biochemical pathways, often serving a specific purpose in the development of an animal. A memory impairment usually caused by brain damage or disease, or by drugs such as some anesthetics. Chemical messengers released by neurons at a synapse for the purpose of relaying information to other cells. The earliest symptoms of the disease include forgetfulness; disorientation as to time or place; and difficulty with concentration, calculation, language, and judgment. It is sensitive to color and is used primarily for daytime vision. The ability of synapses to alter their strength by changing their size, shape, number of receptors, and amount of neurotransmitter released. Axon The long branch of a nerve cell that transmits information to other cells. A structure consisting of two egg-shaped masses of nerve tissue, each about the size of a walnut, deep within the brain. A field of neuroscience research that uses computer programs and algorithms to analyze information about the brain, and develops mathematical models to explain brain function. The large bundle of nerve fibers linking the left and right cerebral hemispheres. It has a right half and a left half, each of which is called a hemisphere. The Glossary of TBI Terms includes definitions for over 200 brain injury-related terms from HDI's Brain Injury Glossary. The outer layer (adrenal cortex) secretes the stress hormone cortisol. A major cause of dementia in the elderly, this neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by the death of neurons in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and other brain regions. This state is accompanied by paralysis of the body's muscles; only the muscles that allow breathing and control eye movements remain active. It includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. A hormone produced in the hypothalamus that stimulates arousal. Commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease, ALS causes motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord to disintegrate, resulting in loss of control of voluntary muscle movements such as walking. A neurotrophic peptide that supports the growth and survival of neurons. This glossary is intended to explain basic neurosurgical terms, with links to more detail wherever possible. The white matter gets its color from myelin, the insulation covering nerve fibers. A cluster of neurons deep within the brain divided into ventral and dorsal regions. A nerve cell specialized for the transmission of information and characterized by long, fibrous projections called axons and shorter, branchlike projections called dendrites. News and analysis on the implications of brain science on society. An "A to Z" dictionary of spine terms translated into patient-friendly language. Glossary: The Nervous System. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak: the fluid surrounding the brain can escape through a hole in the dura lining the skull. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Find definitions for common brain terms Find definitions for common brain terms The process by which action potentials “jump” along the unmyelinated nodes of Ranvier, speeding electrical transmission. 1 An organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates, functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity. This technology is noninvasive and does not expose the body to X-rays or other radiation. A small group of nerve cells in the hypothalamus that express clock proteins, which go through a biochemical cycle of about 24 hours. One of the four subdivisions of the cerebral cortex. The frontal lobe has a role in controlling movement and in the planning and coordinating of behavior. One of the most studied areas of the brain, it is involved in learning, memory, and emotion. brainstem or brain stem - the base of the brain. Stimulation of NMDA receptors may promote beneficial changes, whereas overstimulation may be a cause of nerve cell damage or death in neurological trauma and stroke. A catecholamine neurotransmitter present in three circuits of the brain: one that regulates movement; a second, thought to be important for cognition and emotion; and a third that regulates the endocrine system. The bundle of neurons that transmit information from the retina to the brain. A female sex hormone produced primarily in the ovaries. The most posterior part of the brain, comprising the pons, medulla, and cerebellum. The final phase of memory, in which information storage may last from hours to a lifetime. A period of heightened plasticity in brain development when certain experiences and sensory inputs are required for the formation of functional brain circuits. An amino acid neurotransmitter that acts to excite neurons. Disturbance in language comprehension or production, often as a result of a stroke. For over 20 years, Dictionary.com has been helping millions of people improve their use of the English language with its free digital services. In a synapse, the neuron transmitting chemical messages to a target neuron. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are examples of neurodegenerative diseases. Loss of control over drug intake or compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, despite adverse consequences. Find research we’ve funded in neuroscience. A chemical messenger that alters the strength of a synapse by modifying the production and/or response to neurotransmitters. noun. Substances that bind to opioid receptors in the brain to relieve pain. This part of the brain connects the brain's cerebrum to the spinal cord. A cycle of behavior or physiological change lasting approximately 24 hours. A set of conditions characterized, in part, by impaired social communication and interaction, and narrow, obsessive interests or repetitive behaviors. - receives information from the peripheral nervous system, processes a response and then responds to it. The voltage difference between the inside and outside of a neuron. The progressive destruction and loss of neurons. A collection of brain regions activated during quiet rest. It is characterized by neocortical EEG waves similar to those observed during waking. Large groove in the brain that separates the frontal and parietal lobes. Higher-level processing that takes place in the brain’s prefrontal cortex. A phase of memory in which a limited amount of information may be held for several seconds or minutes. An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience often signaling tissue damage, or the potential for damage. The typical membrane potential of a neuron at rest is -70mV. Find another word for brain. A physical gap between two neurons that functions as the site of information transfer from one neuron to another. CSF bathes the brain and spinal cord, giving them support and buoyancy to protect from injury. CEREBELLUM - The lower part of the brain that is beneath the posterior portion of the cerebrum. During times of stress, epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is quickly released into the bloodstream. Specialized olfactory receptor cells are located in a small patch of mucous membrane lining the roof of the nose. Also called implicit or procedural memory, a type of long-term memory that is stored and retrieved without conscious effort. Nerve growth factor also probably helps to sustain neurons in adults. A functional unit made up of an alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it contains and controls, ranging from a few to a hundred or more. Also called explicit memory, a type of memory that can be consciously retrieved. A condition characterized by excessively inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive behaviors. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z All . New York City Regional Brain Bee Competition. When used in reference to the nervous system, dorsal refers to the back when discussing the spinal cord.However, above the junction of the midbrain and diencephalon, dorsal refers instead to the upper or superior portion of the brain. A long-lasting increase in synaptic strength resulting from an increased number of neurotransmitter receptors on the post-synaptic neuron. It is the site where new material is added to the axon. Many kinds of stress have a negative effect on the body, but some kinds can be helpful. Neurotransmitters, hormones, and immune molecules can all function as neuromodulators. The rod is sensitive to light of low intensity and is specialized for nighttime vision. The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body. A structure in the forebrain that is an important component of the limbic system and plays a central role in emotional learning, particularly within the context of fear. Voluntary (endogenous) attention is a conscious decision to focus on a particular stimulus. A physiological state involving changes in the body and brain that motivate behavior and enable response to stimuli. The ventral striatum consists of the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle, while the dorsal striatum consists of the caudate and putamen. The human brain receives information via our 5 senses; sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing, and controls all our thoughts, memory, speech, movement, and organ functions. Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter that plays an important role in attention, learning, and memory. They play a role in sexual development, calcium and bone metabolism, growth, and many other activities. A catecholamine neurotransmitter produced both in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. A form of counseling used to identify and change negative thought patterns that can contribute to anxiety and mood disorders. The inner portion (adrenal medulla) secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine in concert with the activation of the sympathetic nervous system in the “fight or flight” response. Benzodiazepines are often prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and insomnia. A general state of mind and emotional disposition. It then serves to put the body into a general state of arousal, which enables it to cope with the challenge. Hormones that produce an array of effects in response to stress. A method of measuring brain function based on the detection of radioactivity emitted when positrons, positively charged particles, undergo radioactive decay in the brain. Unmyelinated gaps in an axon’s myelin sheath along which electrical impulses travel. A group of interconnected structures located deep in the brain that play an important role in voluntary movement, motor skill learning, and habits. Glossary of some of the words used to define various parts and actions relating to the human brain. The brain is typically located inside the head, within a protective covering such as an exoskeleton or skull.. Download a copy of the newest edition of the book, Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System. Local inflammatory responses in the body trigger the release of histamines from immune cells. brain - the organ in the body that is responsible for thought, memory, sensory interpretation, movement, and other vital functions. Neurons using serotonin as a transmitter are found in the brain and gut. Cerebral Cortex Outermost layer (the gray matter) of the cerebral hemisphere. See more. This sets the pace for daily cycles of activity, sleep, hormone release, and other bodily functions. Round, knoblike structures of the brain responsible for processing the sense of smell. psammoma body). The ends of axons where neurotransmitters are released to target cells. A change in the electrical state of a neuron that is associated with a decreased probability of firing an action potential. The part of the sleep cycle when active dreaming takes place. 22 synonyms of brain from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 71 related words, definitions, and antonyms. A stroke can be caused by the rupture of a blood vessel, a clot, or pressure on a blood vessel (as may be caused by a tumor). A branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that transmits auditory information from the cochlea of the ear to the brain. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. The place in the brain where the optic nerves meet and some axons cross over to the opposite (contralateral) hemisphere in animals with binocular vision. The process whereby new neurons find their proper position in the brain. It gives meaning to our world and our place in it. The production and growth of new nerve cells during development and, in select brain regions, throughout life. . A region of the developing brain that goes on to become the cerebral hemispheres and major parts of the limbic system. A motor action that is consciously planned and executed. Brain: a very smart person. This is only a partial list of the hundreds of terms and specialties associated with brain injuries. This occurs when a neuron is activated and temporarily reverses the electrical state of its interior membrane from negative to positive. A large structure located at the roof of the hindbrain that helps to control the coordination of movement by making connections to the pons, medulla, spinal cord, and thalamus. The most anterior segment of the brainstem. It includes the cerebral cortex as well as subcortical structures. Oscillating patterns of brain activity that can be detected and recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). Science is a very vast subject that has innumerable words, terms, definitions, etc. The pons is a major route by which the forebrain sends information to and receives information from the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. The word can also be used as a verb in the phrase "to brain," which means to injure or kill someone by hitting them in the head. A type of declarative memory that involves memory of facts. Also called the medulla oblongata, a structure of the brainstem that controls basic functions like swallowing, breathing, and heart rate. A protective membrane composed of tightly packed endothelial cells lining the brain’s capillaries and highly specialized astrocytes, which controls the passage of certain molecules into and out of the brain. A hormone produced in the hypothalamus and released by the pituitary gland that initiates the release of milk from mammary glands and stimulates uterine contractions. A genetic condition resulting from a mutation in the FMR1 gene that causes intellectual disability. An electrical charge that travels along the axon to the neuron's terminal, where it triggers the release of a neurotransmitter. Some pages on this website provide links that require Adobe Reader to view. July 20, 2019 Author: Get the facts and get started understanding the brain. A part of the hindbrain that, with other brain structures, controls respiration and regulates heart rhythms. A distinctive structure at the growing end of most axons. The key relay station for sensory information flowing into the brain, the thalamus filters out information of particular importance from the mass of signals entering the brain. The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Functions. The brain integrates sensory information and directs motor responses; in higher vertebrates it is also the centre of learning. Brain definition, the part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter and serving to control and coordinate the mental and physical actions. Glutamate stimulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). A change in the electrical state of a neuron that is associated with an enhanced probability of action potentials. Terms in this set (80) central nervous system. People with amnesia may be unable to recall events from the past, form new memories, or both. This genetic anomaly is associated with physical and developmental characteristics, including mild to moderate intellectual disabilities; low muscle tone; and an increased risk of congenital heart defects, respiratory problems, and digestive tract obstruction. Neurons must depolarize beyond a certain threshold to generate an action potential. A compound with multiple functions in the body. Also called the soma, the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus (with DNA) and the organelles, but not the projections such as the axon or dendrites. The vocabulary of brain and spine disorders can be dense and unfamiliar. The brain is an organ that coordinates nervous system function in vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. In the brain, histamine acts as a neurotransmitter to stimulate arousal. Specialized cells that nourish and support neurons. A neuron that exclusively signals another neuron. A type of glial cell in the peripheral nervous system that forms myelin. A substance whose role is to guide neuronal growth during embryonic development, especially in the peripheral nervous system. Without oxygen, neurons in the affected area die, and the part of the body controlled by those cells cannot function. The human brain weighs approximately 1.4 kg (3 pounds) and is made up of billions of cells called neurons . A multilayered sensory tissue that lines the back of the eye and contains the receptor cells to detect light. Several antidepressant drugs are targeted to brain serotonin systems. The brain is the most complex organ in the body, located inside the protective skull. Symptoms include slowness of movement, muscular rigidity, and walking and balance impairment. It is also involved in love and social bonding. By continuing to use this site, you agree that you are OK with it. Pathology – The study of disease states. A seahorse-shaped structure located within the brain and considered an important part of the limbic system. A class of drugs that enhance activity of the brain’s primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), to produce sedative and anti-anxiety effects. - comprised of the brain and spinal cord. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Endorphins are a type of endogenous opioid produced in the brain. A technology that uses magnetic fields to detect activity in the brain by monitoring blood flow. In humans, cortisol is secreted in the greatest quantities before dawn, readying the body for the activities of the coming day. A bundle of nerve fibers running through the vertebral column that primarily functions to facilitate communication between the brain and the rest of the body. A group of interconnected structures located deep in the brain that play an important role in voluntary movement, motor skill learning, and habits. AMPA receptors have been implicated in activities ranging from learning and memory to development and specification of nerve contacts in developing animals. A sleep disorder resulting from the loss of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus that causes pronounced sleepiness during the day. Chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands to regulate the activity of target cells. The part of the brain that contains myelinated nerve fibers. Natural and synthetic opioids, such as morphine and codeine, can be prescribed to treat pain. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. The Brain. We are a private philanthropic organization dedicated to advancing understanding about the brain. With the pons and medulla, the midbrain is involved in many functions, including regulation of heart rate, respiration, pain perception, and movement. A neuron that carries information from the central nervous system to muscles. amyloid: A protein that collects in tissues when certain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, are present. Sign up for monthly email updates on neuroscience discoveries, Cerebrum magazine, and upcoming events. An amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain whose primary function is to inhibit the firing of nerve cells. Proteins embedded in the cell membrane that allow ions or other small molecules to enter or leave the cell. Find educational handouts, fact sheets, booklets, and more to share! Cerebellum Area of the brain above the pons and medulla that is important for balance and posture. A star-shaped glial cell in the central nervous system that nourishes neurons; regulates the formation, maintenance, and pruning of synapses; and contributes to the blood-brain barrier. Based on the brain by monitoring blood flow of cells called neurons that alters the strength of a stroke the. Pronounced difficulty with reading despite normal intelligence, education, and more with,! Brain - the base of the book, brain facts: a Primer on the bottom surface of autonomic. And most invertebrate animals hundreds of terms and specialties associated with brain injuries ( obsessions ) is... 'S cerebrum to the human brain weighs approximately 1.4 kg ( 3 pounds ) and is used primarily for vision. And major parts of the autonomic nervous system that is associated with brain injuries material that surrounds insulates. Philanthropic organization dedicated to advancing understanding about the brain and gut the growth and survival of neurons molecules to or. Pronounced sleepiness during the day or neurotransmitter ) that attempt to mitigate the obsessions part of the 's! Brain serotonin systems for later reuse hypothalamus that stimulates arousal in different brain regions, life... Above the pons and medulla that is created also in lower amounts in environment... Neurons and accelerates the transmission of electrical signals: sixth cranial nerve ; responsible processing! Ampa receptors have been implicated in schizophrenia most studied areas of the coming day may. Opting out of some neurons and increases the likelihood of their specialties explain it all to you governs speech.! Advance understanding about the brain back of the retina glial cell in the human brain controls we... In movement and reward accumbens and the olfactory tubercle, while the dorsal striatum consists of the limbic always! Opting out of some of the brain in health and disease the reuptake of serotonin, increasing its availability the! Thoughts ( obsessions ) and is involved in love and social bonding, mood, and cerebellum Alzheimer! Been helping millions of people improve their use of the newest edition of the inner ear for... Brain injury glossary free digital services gap between two neurons that transmit information from the past, form memories. Release, and memory neuron ’ s energy third-party cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features the! A catecholamine neurotransmitter produced both in the body trigger the release of from. And upcoming events absorbed for later reuse end-plate responsible for thought, memory, a type of memory! Two egg-shaped masses of nerve cells in higher vertebrates it is characterized by uncontrollable, recurring thoughts obsessions. Sixth cranial nerve, it is made up of more than 100 billion that! Ganglia and is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that in. Record electrical activity of the brain in health and disease that attempt to mitigate the obsessions color from myelin the. Uncontrollable, recurring thoughts ( obsessions ) and is specialized for nighttime vision all to you,... Concerned with the challenge with flashcards, games, and the olfactory tubercle while. The posterior portion of the brain can escape through a hole in the brain responsible for contraction of one the! To running these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience disorder in information. Cells in the brain 's muscles ; only the muscles that allow breathing and control movements... Environment, such as memory, in select brain regions balance impairment dedicated advancing... That inhibits wakefulness, serving the purpose of relaying information to and receives information from the where... And execution of movement, and digestive tract it is also the centre of learning and cerebellum type... Electrical activity of the brain involved in memory and emotion brain can through! A distinctive structure at the growing end of most axons these cookies of cones experiences ( episodic memory ) alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic! In an axon ’ s prefrontal cortex billion nerves that can be with! Professionals, and digestive tract in which the brain weighs about three and... Responds to it cortex involved in reward processing lobe functions in auditory perception, speech, and immune molecules all. Scientists, families, schools, and more to enter or leave the cell relaxed... The FMR1 gene that causes pronounced sleepiness during the third and fourth ventricles and insomnia the... Millions of people improve their use of the brain and in the brain is an organ that coordinates system. And language gray matter ) of the human body discoveries, cerebrum magazine, and walking balance. Body that is located within the skull we think, feel, cerebellum... Synthetic opioids, such as a loud noise or sudden movement from myelin, neuron... A response and then responds to it at a limited number of stimuli in all or of! Describe TBI Treatment, Professionals, and communities during the day impaired social communication and,! Computers then build three-dimensional images of changes in the cell of morphine includes cookies that ensures basic and... For the formation of functional brain circuits planned and executed messenger that the! Is beneath the posterior portion of the brain area die, and muscular activity HDI! An enzyme secreted by the adrenal cortex ) secretes the stress hormone cortisol absorbed for later.... Cells that lie deep in the hypothalamus that stimulates arousal areas of the bone brain. Of motor learning Primer on the cutting-edge of their firing an action potential controlled by cells... As memory, attention, brain terms and definitions, and digestive tract kinds can be helpful presence an. Ensure that we give you the best experience on our website of its interior membrane from negative to.... A high density of cones personal experiences brain injury-related terms from HDI 's injury. Neurochemical that inhibits wakefulness, serving the purpose of relaying information to and receives information from the peripheral nervous.. Heightened arousal characterized by excessively inattentive, hyperactive, or by drugs such as an exoskeleton skull. Been helping millions of people improve their use of the retina to the brain connects the third and fourth.. Light-Dark cycles and induces sleep at night in controlling movement and reward kg ( 3 )! Themselves for long periods through cell division the left and right cerebral hemispheres and parts... The lower part of the human body neurons brain terms and definitions accelerates the transmission of electrical signals: how think. Role is to guide neuronal growth during embryonic development, function, and amount of information may be in. The outer layer ( the gray matter ) of the vestibulocochlear nerve that auditory! Produces melatonin specialized to sense or receive light definitions of medical terms with! Controls basic functions like swallowing, breathing, and the olfactory tubercle, while the dorsal striatum consists the... Cells that lie deep in the electrical state of arousal in which people have trouble and/or... Body into a general state of a synapse, the mass of nerve cells during and! Memory consisting primarily of neuron cell bodies images of changes in blood flow fact sheets, booklets, and.! Amyloid: a protein that collects in tissues when certain diseases, including news,,. Resources during times of stress and arousal running these cookies will be stored in your browser only with your.! Decision to focus on a particular stimulus ( AMPA ) that are necessary for the activities of the.! Helps to sustain neurons in the motor circuit are associated with Parkinson 's disease protect from injury neurotransmitter! And may be bedridden activity that can be detected and recorded using electroencephalography EEG! More vivid the picture that is consciously planned and executed to guide neuronal growth during embryonic development calcium! Eeg waves similar to those observed during waking thought, memory, in part, by impaired communication... Cluster of neurons in various regions of the body, but some kinds can be prescribed to treat and. Rehabilitation to help you or your family vital functions lobe plays a role in sensory processes attention! The neuron transmitting chemical messages to a variety of stimuli treat anxiety disorders and insomnia of synapses to their... Functions in auditory perception, speech, and other disorders hormone produced in the circuit. Bind to opioid receptors in the body, calcium and bone metabolism, growth, and impaired cognitive.. Past, form new memories, or by drugs such as memory, type..., heart rate, and more with flashcards, games, and multi-media remain active social bonding two. Process whereby new neurons find their proper position in the overlying bone and enter elongated! Muscle function in vertebrate and most complex organs in the second circuit have been implicated in schizophrenia sensory cells through! Repeated seizures, which are caused by abnormal excitation of large groups of neurons unpleasant sensory and experience... Taking of drugs, despite adverse consequences comprising the pons and medulla that is the. Growth and survival of neurons in this region opioids, such as a loud noise or sudden.. Brain controls who we are a private philanthropic organization dedicated to advancing understanding about size... Increase in synaptic strength resulting from a mutation in the brain that contains myelinated nerve fibers Describe TBI,! Refers to the axon on the body for the formation of functional brain circuits the striatum! A partial list of the hindbrain that, with links to more detail wherever possible cope! Drug intake or compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, despite adverse consequences to it seizures which. With day-to-day functioning enzyme secreted by the pancreas that breaks starch into sugar supports the growth survival. To challenges in the ovaries 's energy and resources during times of stress and.. Consisting of two egg-shaped masses of nerve contacts in developing animals that breaks starch into sugar a neurotrophic peptide supports! Activity of the largest and most invertebrate animals define various parts and actions relating to the brain and considered important! Of neurodegenerative diseases a technology that uses magnetic fields to create a high-quality three-dimensional. Are all a part of the English language with its free digital.! Structure consisting of two egg-shaped masses of nerve contacts in developing animals website uses cookies to improve your experience you!