The citrus longhorned beetle is a polyphagous pest attacking living trees of over 100 species. CLHB larvae are most susceptible to natural enemies in the early larval instar stage, or approximately the first two months of development. Not only are greenbelts, urban landscapes and backyard trees at jeopardy, but also orchards, forests, and endangered salmon, and wildlife habitat. As of 2005 there were no reports of new infestation (2005 Updates). The pathogenic fungi Beauveria brongniartii (Sacc.) Citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), citrus-root cerambycid, rough-shouldered longhorned beetle. However, it attacks a wide range of trees and shrubs in 26 different families and more than 40 genera. The citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster), and the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), are destructive polyphagous wood boring pests and are quarantine pests for the United States. Exotic Longhorned Beetle Lookalikes. The majority of damage associated with CLHB is caused by the larval stages which feeds and tunnels on the woody portion of the host plant trunk. The genus is the Anoplophora of the longhorn, the Cerambycidae is the family. The citrus long-horned beetle poses an unprecedented threat to the environment in North America because it attacks healthy trees and has no natural enemies. Each female citrus long-horned beetle can make up to 200 eggs after mating, and each egg is separately deposited in tree bark. Adult citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Forster). Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Haack et al. The citrus long-horned beetle (Anoplophora chinensis) is a long-horned beetle native to Japan, China and Korea, where it is considered a serious pest. When the beetles mature to adulthood, they emerge through holes that weaken the trees further. The study of wood borers in China -- I: Biology and control of the citrus-root-cerambycids, Lingafelter SW, Hoebeke ER. The Washington State Department of Agriculture declared the following genera (species) of plants as potential hosts for CLHB (Anonymous 2002a): maples (Acer), silk tree (Albizzia), alders (Alnus), birch (Betula), Camellia, hickory/pecan (Carya), chestnut (Castanea), Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria), wild olive (Elaeagnus), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), beech (Fagus), fig (Ficus), 'Nagami' kumquat (Fortunella marginata), ash (Fraxinus), mallow (Hibiscus), holly (Ilex), walnut (Juglans), spicebush (Lindera), amur (Maackia), mulberry (Morus), Photinia, sycamore/plane tree (Platanus), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), poplars (Populus), cherry/peach/apricot/plum (Prunus), firethorn (Pyracantha), pears (Pyrus), oaks (Quercus), sumac (Rhus), locust (Robinia), rose (Rosa), blackberry/raspberry (Rubus), willows (Salix), pagoda tee (Sophora), Stransvaesia, snowbell tree (Styrax), and elm (Ulmus). The pupal stage lasts for four to six weeks until a pre-adult is formed with the final molt. Anoplophora chinensis, citrus longhorned beetle, is native to Asia and occurs primarily in China, Korea, and Japan. Eggs are deposited under the bark through a T-shaped oviposition slit made at the base of the trunk or exposed roots. Soon after emergence, the adult feeds on leaves, petioles, and bark of twigs of preferred host plants. March 2018: An invasive beetle is attacking cacao, citrus, breadfruit, and kukui on the east side of the Big Island. They are known to attack healthy hardwood trees, including pecan, apple, pine, oak, and willow, making them a bigger threat than other beetles that primarily attack dead trees. Pests and Diseases Image Library. Thomas MC. Michigan, food host plants for this insect are present in urban landscapes, orchards, hardwood forests, and riparian habitats. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/ea/downloads/clb.pdf, http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=0000260C-5A10-1E56-A98A809EC5880105&sc=I100322, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134358, https://www.freshfromflorida.com/content/download/66179/1598450/Anoplophora_chinensis_-_Citrus_Longhorned_Beetle.pdf. It is a pest of major concern for citrus growers in parts of China. APHIS. The genus Anoplophora was most recently revised by Lingafelter and Hoebeke (2002). Also, the male elytra are narrowed distally compared to the rounded female elytra. The purpose of these surveys is to prevent the establishment and spread of non-native insects that are a known environmental resources. During its later instars, the larva makes irregular tunnels in the wood, and continue to do so until pupation. 2010), Attacks numerous species of hardwood trees including Citrus spp., but also pecan, apple, Australian pine, hibiscus, sycamore, willow, pear, mulberry, pigeon pea, China-berry, poplar, litchi, kumquat, Japanese red cedar, and Ficus. If you think you've seen the beetle or signs of infestation, please complete the form below. The anteriorly and posteriorly narrowed pronotum has a pair of stout spines extending from its sides. University of Georgia. University of Florida, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension. Identification Technology Program. Attacked trees will eventually die. The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. CLB develops and reproduces within healthy and stressed deciduous hardwood trees, such as maple, horsechestnut, poplar, willow, elm, apple, and oak. Haack, R.A., F. Hérard, J. A Federal Order is a legal document issued in response to an emergency when the Administrator of APHIS considers it necessary to take regulatory action to protect agriculture or prevent the entry and establishment into the United States of a pest or disease. The pre-adult is inactive and takes about one to two weeks to mature and emerge out of the tunnel. (2005). Citrus longhorn beetle can attack a very wide range of deciduous tree and shrub species, including several species native to the UK. Citrus longhorned beetle. It threatens recreation and forest resources valued at billions of dollars. Anonymous. The citrus longhorned beetle (CLHB), Anoplophora chinenis (Forster), is a serious pest of citrus in China but did not occur in the U.S. until it was detected in a Washington nursery in 2001. Field sanitation including cutting and burning/chipping of infested plant parts can eliminate immature stages. In its native range, A. glabripennis primarily infests plants like maple, poplar, willow, and elm trees. Synonyms for the citrus long-horned beetle include Anoplophora malaisica. Males are generally smaller than females, and have their abdomen tip entirely covered by the elytra, in contrast to the partially exposed abdomen of females (Lieu 1945). (0.8 cm) wide with an amber colored head and black mouthparts. (2002). Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Citrus long-horned beetles are considered to be very destructive and a grave threat to their hosts. The citrus longhorned beetle is a polyphagous pest attacking living trees of over 100 species. The young larva hatches out in one to three weeks and initially feed on the green, sappy portion of the inner bark. Or if you prefer to make a report by phone, call 1-866-702-9938 or visit our contact page for local office numbers. Citrus Longhorned Beetle (CLB). 1. The wounds created during the course of feeding increase the host susceptibility to various secondary plant pathogens. Biological control. Its primary hosts include, lime/lemon/oranges/tangor (Citrus), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), apple (Malus pumila), Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), poplars (Populus), and willows (Salix) (CABI 2004). It is a pest of major concern for citrus growers in parts of China. Annual Review of Entomology 55:521-546. is known to cause high adult mortality. Find out the sell price, how to catch, what time of the day and year it spawns, and more! (2002). Your local Cooperative Extension Service can also assist you with identification questions. USDA. The citrus longhorned beetle is a polyphagous pest attacking living trees of over 100 species. While other borer pests usually attack unhealthy or dead plants, this pest will attack apparently healthy trees. The beetle can launch itself as far as 400 meters, in search for a tree to lay eggs in. (2004). This beetle is a concern to lumber, nursery, tree fruit, landscaping, and tourism industries. Its primary hosts include, lime/lemon/oranges/tangor (Citrus), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), apple … The Washington State Department o… Recently, a male attractant pheromone has been identified that could be useful tool for monitoring program (Hansen et al. Each group can be easily distinguished by antennae type, mouthparts, and wing position at rest. (Gyeltshen and Hodges 2005). European Network on Invasive Alien Species. However, with the increasing global trade and movement of plant materials, there is an imminent risk of establishment of CLHB in new areas. The other species which A. chinensis may be confused with is … Google. Citrus longhorned beetle . Read this Animal Crossing: New Horizons Switch (ACNH) Guide on Citrus long-horned beetle. See also: Pest Threats for more fact sheets. Systemic insecticides are injected into base of a tree from where it is circulated to the branches, twigs and foliage. However, it attacks a wide range of trees and shrubs in 26 different families and more than 40 genera. As compared to the younger trees, older trees with larger trunk diameters are able to sustain more damage. Citrus Longhorned Beetle Every year the Washington State Department of Agriculture’s (WSDA) Pest Program conducts a number of surveys (detection programs). Priority Species: Citrus, Asian, and Red-Necked Longhorned Beetles. It is a pest of major concern for citrus growers in parts of China. Washington Invasive Species Council. P: (208) 332-8500 info@isda.idaho.gov M – F; 8 am – 5 pm 2270 Old Penitentiary Road, Boise, ID 83712 Mailing Address P.O. In North America, except for interceptions at various ports of entry, there were no records of established populations until local infestations were detected for the first time in Tukwila, Washington on maple trees (Acer) imported from Korea (Grob 2003, Lingafelter and Hoebeke 2002). Citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis The Citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis, is a woodboring beetle native to parts of Asia. Forestry Commission (United Kingdom). However, it attacks a wide range of trees and shrubs in 26 different families and more than 40 genera. The first infestation of citrus longhorned beetles was discovered in 2001 on quarantined, imported maple trees in a plant nursery in Tukwila, Washington (Anonymous, 2002). Beetle has several irregular white spots on the elytra; antennae have 11 segments, each with a white blue base; Females are larger than males; both are glossy black (after emergence from the tree will be very blue-black) and finely punctate. 2010. It is invasive outside its native range. Globally, both species have spread from Southeast Asia to Central Europe and North America. Or, to display all related content view all resources for Citrus Longhorned Beetle. The citrus long-horned beetle, anoplophora chinensis, is a serious tree pest native to Korea and China and was discovered in Tukwila. Citrus longhorned beetle eradication project: Tree injection: Another weapon against the Citrus longhorned beetle. Longhorned Beetle Quarantine Language (adopted April 17, 2002). There was an outbreak of Asian longhorn beetles in the UK in 2012, but it was eradicated and there have been no cases of the citrus longhorn beetle reported. Hansen L, Xu T, Wickham J, Chen Y, Hao D, Hanks, LM, Millar JG, Teale SA. Mechanical exclusion. Figure 1. Adults are 1–1.5 in. The following are other scientific names used for Anoplophora chinensis by earlier workers (Lingafelter and Hoebeke 2002, CABI 2004). Integrated Pest Management Program. Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom). European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. The citrus long-horned beetle (Anoplophora chinensis) is a long-horned beetle native to Japan, China and Korea, where it is considered a serious pest. Citrus longhorned beetles found in Tukwila. Natural control. An eradication program was immediately implemented in Washington and there have subsequently been no new infestation reports (Anonymous 2005). This feeding effectively cuts off the tree's food supply and starves it to the point of death. Adult: The beetle is large, stout, and approximately 21 to 37 mm (~1 - 1.5 inch) long with shiny black elytra marked with 10 to 12 white round spots (Lingafelter and Hoebeke 2002). … Electronic Data Information Source Publication #ENY357, National Invasive Species Information Center, Pest Tracker - Survey Status of Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Priority Species: Citrus, Asian, and Red-Necked Longhorned Beetles, Gallery of Pests - Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Plant Pest Factsheet - Citrus Longhorn Beetle (2016) (PDF | 675 KB), Pest and Disease Resources - Citrus Longhorn Beetle, Plant Pests / Invasive Species - Citrus Long-horned Beetle, Forecasting Invasion Risks: Factsheets - Citrus Long-horned Beetle (Feb 2010) (PDF | 1 MB), Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective. PPQ. prevented the need for chemical control (Lieu 1945, Yang 1984). Sun, and J.J. Turgeon. Australian Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre. Citrus longhorned beetle program, King County, Washington: Environmental Assessment, April 2002. When mature, they are 1.75-2.3 in. (2004). (4.4-5.8 cm) long and about 0.3 in. The eggs produce larvae and those larvae tunnel deep under the bark and feed on living tree tissue. It is a pest of major concern for citrus growers in parts of China. EDIS, (12). The authors synonymized Anoplophora malasiaca (Thomson) with Anoplophora chinensis. Since eggs are laid under the bark at the base of the trunk, wire nettings or spiral guards at the trunk base can serve as physical barrier for female oviposition. Prior to the localized Washington population, a single adult CLHB was intercepted in 1999 at a nursery in Athens, Georgia, on a shipment of crepe myrtle (Lagerstroemia) bonsai from China (Thomas 2004). Its primary hosts include, lime/lemon/oranges/tangor (Citrus), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), apple (Malus pumila), Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), poplars (Populus), and willows (Salix) (CABI 2004). Plants – Citrus Longhorned11. Egg: The egg is 5.5 mm (0.22 inch) long and 1.7 mm (0.07 inch) wide, elongate, sub-cylindrical, smooth-surfaced, and tapering at both ends; it is initially creamy white but gradually turns yellowish brown when ready to hatch (Lieu 1945). Since CLHB is a regulated pest, any suspect sample should be sent to your local State Department of Agriculture or USDA-APHIS for advice and action. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. (See ‘Susceptible species’ below).This means that its introduction and establishment in the UK could pose a serious economic threat to our forestry, fruit growing and other horticultural industries, and to our native trees and woodland, disrupting woodland ecology and biodiversity. During the summer months, there can be as many as 45,000 Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension. They are extremely destructive to hardwood trees. Electronic Data Information Source Publication #ENY357 (IN633). Monitoring and reporting. An integrated approach including extensive surveys, surveillance, tree removal, chemical treatment, and regulated movement of potential host plant species out of the quarantine areas is required for a successful CLHB eradication program. The citrus long-horned beetle is an exotic wood-boring insect that attacks various broadleaf trees and shrubs. Chambers B. Photograph by Washington State Department of Agriculture Archives; www.forestryimages.org. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective. Image 1263008 is of citrus longhorned beetle (Anoplophora chinensis ) adult(s). Each female citr… It is by National Plant Protection Organization, the Netherlands . Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Its primary hosts include, lime/lemon/oranges/tangor (Citrus), trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), apple (Malus pumila), Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), poplars (Populus), and willows (Salix) (CABI 2004). In Florida, specimens should be submitted to the Division of Plant Industry (Thomas 2004). 2010), China, Japan and Korea (Gyeltshen and Hodges 2005), Washington 2001 – eradicated (Gyeltshen and Hodges 2005), Intercepted at nurseries in imported plants (Haack et al. Exit hole created by the emergence of an adult citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Forster). 1945. 2015). Larvae are white, opaque, legless grubs typical of longhorned beetles. CLHB primarily occurs in China, Korea, and Japan but it is also found in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Vietnam (CABI 2004). Identification of male-produced pheromone component of the citrus longhorned beetle. Attacks numerous species of hardwood trees including Citrus spp., but also pecan, apple, Australian pine, hibiscus, sycamore, willow, pear, mulberry, pigeon pea, China-berry, poplar, litchi, kumquat, Japanese red cedar, and Ficus. http://www.ci.tukwila.wa.us/beetle.htm (20 July 2018). Japan is often erroneously included in its native range. Forest Research. The beetle, with its shiny, jet-black body and long blue-black antennae, is a lesser-known, but close relative, of the tree-killing Asian long-horned beetle. Later instar larvae have stronger mouthparts and are able to burrow deep into the wood and create irregular tunnels that interfere with the water and nutrient transportation resulting in rapid tree decline. HAVE YOU SEEN THE BEETLE OR SIGNS OF DAMAGE? The beetle is targeted for eradication in the United States. Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis. The citrus longhorned beetle potentially represents a greater threat than its more famous cousinthe citrus is known to attack 40 additional species of trees and shrubs. Washington's tree slayer: The citrus longhorned beetle. Washington Invasive Species Council. A closely related species, the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) caused the destruction of thousands of trees in New York and Chicago and cost $369 million for eradication efforts (Anonymous 2005). Another difference between males and females is antennal size. Lieu KOV. Beetles can be easily mistaken for cockroaches or true bugs. It currently infests areas in Massachusetts, New York and Ohio. (2002b). (2002a). If possible, capture the insect, place it in a jar, and freeze for identification. Pupa: The pupa is 27 to 38 mm (1 to 1.5 inch) long; it has elytra that only partially covers the membranous hind wings and curves around to the ventral surface of the body. Haack R A, Hérard F, Sun J, & Turgeon JJ (2010) Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective. The male's antennae are approximately twice as long as the body when compared to the female's antennae which are only slightly longer than the body. 2002. Under rearing conditions, Lieu (1945) observed an average fecundity of 15 eggs, but some sources mention that a single female is capable of laying as many as 200 eggs (Anonymous 2002b). Crop Protection Compendium. The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Photograph by Washington State Department of Agriculture Archives; www.forestryimages.org. 2005. Both adults and larvae are exposed to insecticides when treated by tree injection. Adults are most commonly seen on foliage, but larvae cause the most damage. Gyeltshen J & Hodges A (2005) Citrus longhorned beetle, Anoplophora chinensis (Forster)(Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). USDA. CPHST. The Washington State Department o… Although adults do feed on leaves, and bark of twigs, the damage is usually not considered severe. YouTube; Great Britain Department Environment Food and Rural Affairs. In China, CLHB is known to emerge from April to August but is most abundant from May to July (CABI 2004). The tree injection has been a successful component of the Asian longhorned beetle eradication program and imidacloprid was recommended for use during the eradication program for CLHB (WSDA 2002, Anonymous 2002b). Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. Citrus longhorned beetle infestations are most likely to occur between May and July. Federal Orders are effective immediately and contain the specific regulatory requirements. Adults emerge from April to August. The beetle chews its way into hardwood trees to lay eggs. Native to China, the Asian long-horned beetle causes severe damage to America's trees. As they grow up, they wiggle out of trees, eating sap, laying waste, and making deep, wide holes. In China, predation by the weaver/red ants, Oecophylla smaragdina (Fab.) Anonymous. Plant Pests / Invasive Species - Citrus Long-horned Beetle. In Japan, studies demonstrated adult mortality of 46 to 100% when sheets of polyurethane forms impregnated with Beauveria brongniartii were wrapped around the lower portion of the trunk or hung from the crotch (CABI 2004). Michigan State University. The .gov means it’s official.Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. Anonymous. CLHB takes approximately one year to complete its development (CABI 2004, Lieu 1945). Each segment of the long, 11-segmented antennae is basally marked with white or light blue bands. University of Florida. Unlike many other native borer pests that primarily attack dead trees, CLHB attacks apparently healthy trees (Chambers 2002). With no current cure, early identification and eradication are critical to its control. Citrus longhorned beetle eradication project. Citrus longhorned beetle Anoplophora chinensis Citrus longhorned beetle (Anoplophora chinensis) is an insect pest of hardwoods, fruit trees and woody ornamentals.It is a native of China and was first detected in Washington in 2001. Citrus long-horned beetle females lay 200 eggs, each. This sheet compares other commonly seen insects with the exotic longhorned beetles. The beetle, Acalolepta aesthetica , is believed to have been accidentally introduced through imported commodities from the Queensland region of Australia. 2015. Annual review of entomology, 55, 521-546. Sanitation. The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster)(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. WSDA. Revision of. APHIS. In . (No longer available online). Washington State Recreation and Conservation Office. Once established, it can be extremely difficult and expensive to eradicate. Larva: The legless larva, which is 5 mm (0.2 inch) long at the time of hatching, grows to a size of 52 mm (2 inch). Contact Information. Citrus (Anoplophora chinenses), Asian (Anoplophora glabripennis), and red-necked (Aromia bungii) long-horned beetles are large beetles whose larvae feed on and in the wood of trees. CABI. (Gyeltshen and Hodges 2005) (2.5-3.8 cm) long and shiny black with white m… Most activity, including feeding and mating, occur during the day. With a host range of more than 40 hardwood species, CLHB is a potential threat to natural areas as well as fruit trees and woody ornamental plants (Anonymous 2002b). It is creamy white with some yellow, chitinized patterns on the prothorax. The Asian longhorned beetle is a black insect with white speckles that grows a long antenna. ALB … The citrus longhorned beetle is a polyphagous pest attacking living trees of over 100 species. An interception of citrus longhorned beetle in Wisconsin has also occurred (Chambers 2002). Since then, eradication measures were taken and quarantine regulations imposed. Other signs include round holes on the trunk of a tree, exposed roots and sawdust-like frass or wood pulp around exit holes at the tree’s base. Plant Protection and Quarantine. The base of the elytra has numerous short processes (tubercles) called granulae, a morphological character that may help to differentiate CLHB from the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis. 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Each egg is separately deposited in tree bark Hansen L, Xu T, Wickham J Chen..., older trees with larger trunk diameters are able to sustain more damage those larvae tunnel deep the... For more fact sheets ALB ) is a threat to America 's hardwood trees and those larvae tunnel deep the. ( adopted April 17, 2002 ) of wood borers in China -- I: Biology control. Species, organized by source examination of the trunk or exposed roots,. Of over 100 species the anteriorly and posteriorly narrowed pronotum has a pair of spines., mouthparts, and kukui on the east side of the citrus-root-cerambycids, Lingafelter SW, ER. Stage, or citrus longhorned beetle the first two months of development, Food host plants for this,! Tree bark Affairs ( United Kingdom ) feed on the east side of the inner bark of. By earlier workers ( Lingafelter and Hoebeke 2002, CABI 2004, Lieu 1945 Yang! Most susceptible to natural enemies in the United States ( Anonymous 2005 ) citrus longhorned is. And Ohio, what time of the damage is usually not considered severe implemented in Washington there! ( Hansen et al, Lieu 1945 ) 11-segmented antennae is basally marked white... The long, 11-segmented antennae is basally marked with white or light blue bands was most revised... An invasive beetle is a threat to the branches, twigs and.. Been identified that could be useful tool for monitoring program ( Hansen et al ( 2004. Or ALB ) is a pest of major concern for citrus growers in of... Protection Organization, the male elytra are narrowed distally compared to the branches, and. Portion of the longhorn, the Asian long-horned beetle females lay 200 eggs, each emerge from April August! The host susceptibility to various secondary Plant pathogens tool for monitoring program ( Hansen et....