The English language uses a comma to separate three or more items in a series. Conjunctions do not normally cause serious errors, but writers are sometimes confused about when to place a comma before a conjunction. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. The listing comma is used as a kind of substitute for the word and, or sometimes for or. A comma is used before an "and" only if it is used to separate two independent clauses, or if it is used as an Oxford comma to separate the last item in a list of three or … At one time the Brits did use it, but without wanting to get … If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Although such logical precision might seem trivial when we are talking about topics at a conference, it can be absolutely crucial in certain kinds of writing. The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. Serial Commas and Serial Semicolons By Erika Suffern Serial Commas. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. Example: The dog and the cat were named Jack and Sam, respectively, and they lived down the street from me. They do not do “packing for shipment or distribution”. Serial commas are used after the next-to-last item in a list and before the and. 3. Tip: See my list of the Most Common Mistakes in English.It will teach you how to avoid mistakes with commas, prepositions, irregular verbs, and much more. In the second case, that comma is omitted. Breach
The law was written according to the state’s style guide, which says it’s fine to leave out the comma before “and” (known to grammar nerds as an Oxford comma) just because that’s a thing people do sometimes. She has written about health and science for over a decade, including two books: Outbreak! Consider this sentence, for example: Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. S hould you use a comma before and/or after “etc.”? b. collected for specified, explicit and legitimate purposes and not further processed in a manner that is incompatible with those purposes; further processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes shall not be considered to be incompatible with the initial purposes;
If your writing looks professional, so do you. A comma should precede the term etc. This policy applies to all personal data processed by the Business. a. b. Register of Systems means a register of all systems or contexts in which personal data is processed by the Business. For nearly three decades, Dr. Nancy Tuten has taught seminars on writing-related issues to professionals in the public and private sectors, including federal and state government employees, judges and staff members of state and federal court systems, private attorneys, law school faculty and students, and employees in the financial sector. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. 2. f. processed in a manner that ensures appropriate security of the personal data, including protection against unauthorised or unlawful processing and against accidental loss, destruction or damage, using appropriate technical or organizational measures.”
2. But the court is right: if you want to clearly identify the items in your list, consider your commas carefully. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. I would think Oxford University is a fairly authoritarian source on the matter and they say to use the comma – despite the fact that its use is less standard in Britain and the US. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? When writing a list, you should put a comma between each item, except for the last item where you use ‘and’. Serial Comma. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. We don’t know for certain, but we can suppose that print journalists omit the serial comma because in the early days of their profession, when most news was still delivered in print, saving keystrokes meant saving money. Fuck that law right in its festering asshole. Comma Before And in Lists. Here’s another example of a sentence in which the omission of the serial comma has a substantive effect on the meaning: Mrs. Jones left her money to her children: Sally and Fred Smith, Margaret and John Williams, Betty and Harold Spivey and their children. Commas Before and in a Series In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. Always place a comma before or when it begins an independent clause, but if it begins a dependent clause, don’t. Let’s start simple. Use a comma to separate items in a list (but beware of the serial comma). Well, forget proper. b. In a series (or list) of three or more items, you can use a comma before or, but this is a preference, not a rule. Use a comma in your dates to separate date and year. Definitions
The final comma before the Therefore, in American English, your example with black and white cars is written as: The cars are blue, green, and black and white. My daughter is doing an assignment on commas. – FumbleFingers Apr 28 at 16:59 The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. When the day of the week is provided before the month, the day of the week should be followed by a comma. a. Mrs. Jones left all her money to her three children: Huey, Dewey and Louie. The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly. Lawful purposes
Punctuation is used to separate the items in the list. Although this is the most common format for dates, there are exceptions. When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. Either way, Ella should learn to control her temper.. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. According to The Little, Brown Handbook (Fowler and … Use commas to set off a word or phrase that renames a noun or pronoun that came before it. Join us as we explore the ins and outs of the various commas in dates rules. A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. b. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. Rule 1. a. processed lawfully, fairly and in a transparent manner in relation to individuals;
Writers frequently wonder whether a comma should go before the conjunction and in a list of three or more items. The Register of Systems shall be reviewed at least annually. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… 1. 9. buckets and spades, or lions and tigers and bears. [Miguel took piano lessons for sixteen years], and [today he is an accomplished performer]. Why it is wrong: The sentence has one subject (Ella) and two verbs (wrote, screamed). [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. Which of these sentences would be improved by the addition of the serial comma? Get It Write Online
Without the serial comma, the sentence does not clearly indicate that each of the three children is to be given an equal share of the inheritance. d. Appropriate back-up and disaster recovery solutions shall be in place. (And Punctuating All Relative Clauses), The Oxford (or Serial) Comma: Using a Comma before “and” in a List, Columbia Guide to Standard American English, Pop Chart Lab A Diagrammatical Dissertation on Opening Lines of Notable Novels Poster Print, 24″ x 18″, Multicolored, Call Me Ishmael Postcards: Sentence Diagrams of Great Literary Quotes (Pop Chart Lab), Breaking the Rules: Liberating Writers Through Innovative Grammar Instruction, The American Heritage Dictionary: Fifth Edition, Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 11th Edition. At one time the Brits did use it, but without wanting to get … Almost everyone has an opinion on serial comma use, often referred to as the Oxford comma. In English language punctuation, a serial comma, or series comma (also called an Oxford comma or Harvard comma), is a comma placed immediately after the penultimate term (i.e. First, let’s look at lists. a. a. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. In the event of a breach of security leading to the accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to, personal data, the Business shall promptly assess the risk to people’s rights and freedoms and if appropriate report this breach to the ICO (more information on the ICO website).