The English language uses a comma to separate three or more items in a series. Conjunctions do not normally cause serious errors, but writers are sometimes confused about when to place a comma before a conjunction. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. The listing comma is used as a kind of substitute for the word and, or sometimes for or. A comma is used before an "and" only if it is used to separate two independent clauses, or if it is used as an Oxford comma to separate the last item in a list of three or … At one time the Brits did use it, but without wanting to get … If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Although such logical precision might seem trivial when we are talking about topics at a conference, it can be absolutely crucial in certain kinds of writing. The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. Serial Commas and Serial Semicolons By Erika Suffern Serial Commas. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. Example: The dog and the cat were named Jack and Sam, respectively, and they lived down the street from me. They do not do “packing for shipment or distribution”. Serial commas are used after the next-to-last item in a list and before the and. 3. Tip: See my list of the Most Common Mistakes in English.It will teach you how to avoid mis­takes with com­mas, pre­pos­i­tions, ir­reg­u­lar verbs, and much more. In the second case, that comma is omitted. Breach The law was written according to the state’s style guide, which says it’s fine to leave out the comma before “and” (known to grammar nerds as an Oxford comma) just because that’s a thing people do sometimes. She has written about health and science for over a decade, including two books: Outbreak! Consider this sentence, for example: Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. S hould you use a comma before and/or after “etc.”? b. collected for specified, explicit and legitimate purposes and not further processed in a manner that is incompatible with those purposes; further processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes shall not be considered to be incompatible with the initial purposes; If your writing looks professional, so do you. A comma should precede the term etc. This policy applies to all personal data processed by the Business. a. b. Register of Systems means a register of all systems or contexts in which personal data is processed by the Business. For nearly three decades, Dr. Nancy Tuten has taught seminars on writing-related issues to professionals in the public and private sectors, including federal and state government employees, judges and staff members of state and federal court systems, private attorneys, law school faculty and students, and employees in the financial sector. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. 2. f. processed in a manner that ensures appropriate security of the personal data, including protection against unauthorised or unlawful processing and against accidental loss, destruction or damage, using appropriate technical or organizational measures.” 2. But the court is right: if you want to clearly identify the items in your list, consider your commas carefully. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. I would think Oxford University is a fairly authoritarian source on the matter and they say to use the comma – despite the fact that its use is less standard in Britain and the US. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? When writing a list, you should put a comma between each item, except for the last item where you use ‘and’. Serial Comma. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. We don’t know for certain, but we can suppose that print journalists omit the serial comma because in the early days of their profession, when most news was still delivered in print, saving keystrokes meant saving money. Fuck that law right in its festering asshole. Comma Before And in Lists. Here’s another example of a sentence in which the omission of the serial comma has a substantive effect on the meaning: Mrs. Jones left her money to her children: Sally and Fred Smith, Margaret and John Williams, Betty and Harold Spivey and their children. Commas Before and in a Series In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. Always place a comma before or when it begins an independent clause, but if it begins a dependent clause, don’t. Let’s start simple. Use a comma to separate items in a list (but beware of the serial comma). Well, forget proper. b. In a series (or list) of three or more items, you can use a comma before or, but this is a preference, not a rule. Use a comma in your dates to separate date and year. Definitions The final comma before the Therefore, in American English, your example with black and white cars is written as: The cars are blue, green, and black and white. My daughter is doing an assignment on commas. – FumbleFingers Apr 28 at 16:59 The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. When the day of the week is provided before the month, the day of the week should be followed by a comma. a. Mrs. Jones left all her money to her three children: Huey, Dewey and Louie. The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly. Lawful purposes Punctuation is used to separate the items in the list. Although this is the most common format for dates, there are exceptions. When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. Either way, Ella should learn to control her temper.. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. According to The Little, Brown Handbook (Fowler and … Use commas to set off a word or phrase that renames a noun or pronoun that came before it. Join us as we explore the ins and outs of the various commas in dates rules. A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. b. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. Rule 1. a. processed lawfully, fairly and in a transparent manner in relation to individuals; Writers frequently wonder whether a comma should go before the conjunction and in a list of three or more items. The Register of Systems shall be reviewed at least annually. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… 1. 9. buckets and spades, or lions and tigers and bears. [Miguel took piano lessons for sixteen years], and [today he is an accomplished performer]. Why it is wrong: The sentence has one subject (Ella) and two verbs (wrote, screamed). [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. Which of these sentences would be improved by the addition of the serial comma? Get It Write Online Without the serial comma, the sentence does not clearly indicate that each of the three children is to be given an equal share of the inheritance. d. Appropriate back-up and disaster recovery solutions shall be in place. (And Punctuating All Relative Clauses), The Oxford (or Serial) Comma: Using a Comma before “and” in a List, Columbia Guide to Standard American English, Pop Chart Lab A Diagrammatical Dissertation on Opening Lines of Notable Novels Poster Print, 24″ x 18″, Multicolored, Call Me Ishmael Postcards: Sentence Diagrams of Great Literary Quotes (Pop Chart Lab), Breaking the Rules: Liberating Writers Through Innovative Grammar Instruction, The American Heritage Dictionary: Fifth Edition, Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 11th Edition. At one time the Brits did use it, but without wanting to get … Almost everyone has an opinion on serial comma use, often referred to as the Oxford comma. In English language punctuation, a serial comma, or series comma (also called an Oxford comma or Harvard comma), is a comma placed immediately after the penultimate term (i.e. First, let’s look at lists. a. a. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. In the event of a breach of security leading to the accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to, personal data, the Business shall promptly assess the risk to people’s rights and freedoms and if appropriate report this breach to the ICO (more information on the ICO website). The Business shall note the appropriate lawful basis in the Register of Systems. In the final round of the cooking competition, the contestants had to prepare three different quiches: broccoli, ham and cheese and spinach. The archiving policy shall consider what data should/must be retained, for how long, and why. - To separate items in a list, e.g. The serial comma is an extra comma you will often see placed before “and/or” in US based English. For example, some would write the sentence “I am industrious, resourceful and loyal,” using no comma before the “and.” This practice is fine as long as you are consistent in applying it. 1. In the United States, the vast majority of reputable style guides (with the exception of style guides for journalists, such as the well-known manual published by the Associated Press) encourage or even mandate the serial comma. ) isn't "in" the list - it precedes the list. comma before “and” looks like a new thing in Grammar world. d. Where communications are sent to individuals based on their consent, the option for the individual to revoke their consent should be clearly available and systems should be in place to ensure such revocation is reflected accurately in the Business’s systems. Unfortunately, there is no simple rule, such as: Never put a comma before … Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. Or does it contain two more items, “the use of debit and credit cards” and “mutual funds and CDs”? (An independent clause is one that can stand by itself as a simple sentence.) Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. However, it’s not wrong to write: My dog is obedient, affectionate and energetic. Look at the following example. To ensure that personal data is kept for no longer than necessary, the Business shall put in place an archiving policy for each area in which personal data is processed and review this process annually. Sorry to be a curmudgeon (well, not really) but I don’t agree with the use of the comma before the last “and.”. Correct: He is great, and I admire him. Before joining words. Comma (,) Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. 2. Commas don't just signify pauses in a sentence — precise rules govern when to use this punctuation mark. Certain jobs don’t get overtime pay, just because? c. This policy shall be reviewed at least annually. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. According to The Little, Brown Handbook (Fowler and … In his 1969 edition of Frost’s poetry (the edition that most people have on their bookshelves), Edward Connery Lathem took the liberty of adding the serial comma to this line despite the fact that Frost had never added it in any published version authorized during his lifetime. Punctuation has two main roles to play in the presentation of lists of items.. To separate the items in a list. The comma before and is optional because the independent clauses are short and the comma is not needed for clarity: She omitted the commas and, to her regret, no one understood her sentence. Learn when you must use it. before the coordinating conjunction [usually and or or]) in a series of three or more terms. Without the serial comma before the last and, the sentence could be interpreted to mean that only the children of Betty and Harold Spivey are to receive a share of the inheritance and not the children of the other couples. Business means Get It Write Online. Read more about commas in lists. Or the table may be covered with gifts, all of which fall into one of two categories—food or flowers. 2. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. Where necessary for the lawful basis on which data is processed, steps shall be put in place to ensure that personal data is kept up to date. If it is, I would like to be more enlightened, because, for a list of words that is three and above, comma would be used to separate list of the worlds until you get to the last two when you will use “and” to separate them. If You Use a Serial Comma, Use it Consistently. In the first case, the “serial comma” or “Oxford comma” is used after the penultimate item in the list. Take legal documents, for example. That girl is obsessed with commas, semicolons, and em dashes. The Serial Comma. Patti and her friends are debating about the serial comma—the comma that comes before the final conjunction in a list. Data minimization: The Business shall ensure that personal data are adequate, relevant and limited to what is necessary in relation to the purposes for which they are processed. For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as "France, Italy and Spain" (without the serial comma) or "France, Italy, and Spain" (with the serial comma). Clause, don ’ t joining two complete sentences, so do you consider your commas carefully people that. “ Oxford comma conjunctions—most commonly, and or Dewey and Louie “ etc. ” at Larry for an hour processing. Not wrong to Write: My estate goes to My husband, son, daughter-in-law and. 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